Tuesday, 17 December 2013

TISS-IRMA:topic2: CHILD ISSUES

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Topics covered:NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR PROTECTION OF CHILD RIGHTS,CHILD MARRIAGE: ITS PREVENTION,  CAUSES OF JUVENILE DELIQUENCY, CHILD ABUSE AND ITS PREVENTION,The Step taken by the Government to prevent malnutrition in Children

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NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR PROTECTION OF CHILD RIGHTS

The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) was set up in March 2007 under the Commission for Protection of Child Rights Act, 2005, an Act of Parliament (December 2005). The Commission's Mandate is to ensure that all Laws, Policies, Programmes, and Administrative Mechanisms are in consonance with the Child Rights perspective as enshrined in the Constitution of India and also the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Child is defined as a person in the 0 to 18 years age group

CHILD MARRIAGE: ITS PREVENTION

The Child Marriage Restraint Act of 1929: It is also known as Sarda act. It was applied to all the citizens of India except Jammu and Kashmir. This Act defined a male child as 21 years or younger, a female child as 18 years or younger, and a minor as a child of either sex 18 years or younger.

CAUSES OF JUVENILE DELIQUENCY

Juvenile delinquency, also known as juvenile offending, or youth crime, is participation in illegal behavior by minors (juveniles) (individuals younger than the statutory age of majority). Individual Risk Factors
  •  Several risk factors are identified with juvenile delinquency. A minor who has a lower intelligence and who does not receive a proper education is more prone to become involved in delinquent conduct. Other risk factors include impulsive behavior, uncontrolled aggression and an inability to delay gratification. In many instances, multiple individual risk factors can be identified as contributing to a juvenile involvement in harmful, destructive and illegal activities.

CHILD ABUSE AND ITS PREVENTION

Child abuse was defined by Kempe and Kempe as a condition having to do those with who have been deliberately injured by physical assault. According to Burgess, Child abuse refers to any child who receives non-accidental physical and psychological injury as a result of acts and omissions on the part of his parents or guardians or employers. According to an estimate, five to 15 children per 1000 children are abused by parents and employers in India.
The Four major causes of child abuse are as following:
  • Alcoholism of Parents.
  •  Poverty.
  •  Lack of parental control and non-cordial relations within family.
  •  The parents facing child abuse in their own childhood.
The Step taken by the Government to prevent malnutrition in Children
  •   Midday meal scheme in Indian schools
The Mid Day Meal is the world’s largest school feeding programme reaching out to about 12 crore children in over 12.65 lakh schools/EGS centres across the country. It was initially launched on 15 August 1995 in 2408 blocks across the country. By the year 1997-98 the NP-NSPE was introduced in all blocks of the country. With a view to enhancing enrollment, retention and attendance and simultaneously improving nutritional levels among children, the National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (NP-NSPE) was launched as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme on 15th August 1995
  •  Integrated child development scheme 
The Government of India has started a program called Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) in the year 1975. ICDS has been instrumental in improving the health of mothers and children under age 6 by providing health and nutrition education, health services, supplementary food, and pre-school education

  •   National Children's Fund 
The National Children's Fund was created during the International Year of the Child in 1979 under the Charitable Endowment Fund Act, 1890. This Fund Provides support to the voluntary organisations that help the welfare of kids.

Region wise malnutrition in India

  •  Gujarat: In this state, 44.7% of children are underweight, 22.3% of the population is undernourished and 6.1% of children who die under the age of 5 die from hunger.

  • Karnataka: In this state, 37.6% of children are underweight, 28.1% of the population is undernourished and 5.5% of children who die under the age of 5 die from hunger.

  • Madhya Pradesh: In this state, 59.8% of children are underweight, 23.4% of the population is undernourished and 9.4% of children who die under the age of 5 die from hunger.

  • Rajasthan: In this state 40.4% of children are underweight 14.0% of the population is undernourished and 8.5% of children who die under the age of 5 die from hunger.

  • Uttar Pradesh: In this state 42.3% of children are underweight 14.5% of the population is undernourished and 9.6% of children who die under the age of 5 die from hunger.

  •  West Bengal: In this state 38.5% of children are underweight 18.5% of the population is undernourished and 5.9% of children who die under the age of 5 die from hunger.















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