Sunday, 13 October 2013

Fact Inference and judgement Practice questions

3 comments
Before reading this post read :Basics of Face Inference and judgements
                Must see our post on cat-jumbled-paragraphs-1999-2006
Ques1:
1)      You don't have to be a biologist or an anthropologist to see how closely the great apes- gorillas, chimpanzees, orangutas - resemble us.
2) Even children often remark that their bodies are pretty much the same as ours, apart from some exaggerated proportions and extra body hair.
3) Their faces are quit expressive, showing a range of emotions that are familiar.
4) That why we delight in seeing chimps wearing tuxedo, playing the drums or riding bicyles.

a) FIJI b) JFIF c) IFJI d) FIFJ e) JFFJ

Ans: Reasons:
1) Because it's the opinion of writer about the biologist and cannot be verified.
2) It can be verified
3) It can also be verified
4) Again it being the opinion of the author, is a judgement.

Ques2:
1) To date Shiva has represented India thrice in Luge, an extreme ice-sport, at the winter Olympics.
2) Ranked 25th in world, Shiva, the youngest Luge Olympian in the whole world, may well be called the fastest Indian on ice.
3) The thrill in this sport is in how you keep your cool in extreme conditions.
4) Considering that he never had a full time coach, his world ranking appears no less than a feat.

a) FJFI b) FIJJ c) JIJI d) FJIJ e) FFJJ

Ans: FIJJ / FFJJ

Ques3:
1)      Introducing organized sport programs for youngsters in the only hope for Indian golf.
2)      The general public is beginning to recognize the international standing of the Indian golf players who earn more money than the Indian cricketing icons.
3)      In this age when kids are electronically inclined and digitally divided, the high tech gizmo's is also an attraction for kids to his a ball and then check the digital read outs.
4)      News of corporates investing in the games at the junior level is required no only in golf but also in all other sports.

a) JIIJ b) JFIJ c) IFIJ d) FFJJ e) JFJJ

Ans: b) JFIJ
 Before reading this post read :Basics of Face Inference and judgements
Ques4:
  1. Europe's economies are in the doldrums, and no one seems to know how to revive them.
  2. Two noisy arguments now raging clearly show that an alarming number of Europeans are in denial about the economic facts of life.
  3. A clear majority of voters and national governments are set on limiting these freedoms.
  4. The freedom of movement of people is enshrined in the almost 50-year-old treaty of Rome
Options are: 1.IJJI  2.JIJF 3.JJIF 4.JJJF 5.IJIF
Ans: JJJF
In regard to the second statement first of all it cannot be fact, so we are left with either judgement or inference. For inference we should be having fact in some respect, but it is not visible here. Since ' two noisy arguments...' cannot be regarded as a fact in any way...Do you think that noisy argument provides you with some fact atleast NO i think . So something based on TWO NOISY ARGUMENTS how can one draw a conclusion. Hence it must be judgement.
Now we come to the third statement. For this statement we cannot say fact in any case also secondly we do not have any option also in the question. Here two we have to conclude b/w judgment or inference. Ok now ' A clear majority of voters....' Does this say that any election has been held till yet for the result. How can once say clear majority of voters since one do not have any statistics for the same in any manner. Also along with it "and national governments are set....." kind of statement can be made if one has drawn any conclusions or one's own thought. Here too some conclusion is drawn on one's personal analysis for which no statistics is available. Hence this in turn is also a judgment.

Ques5:
  1. Time and tide wait for no man.
  2. Science has created more problems than it has solved.
  3. Familiarity breeds awareness.
  4. If the breadwinner is a drug addict, imagine the sorry plight of the family.

    a) JFII b)FFIJ c) IFJI d) JIII
Ans: a) JFII
Coming to me..I got stuck on 2..Science... 1. A judgement...some puys have said its verifiable..but since its merely a saying..that makes it a judgement.. 2. A big confusion..My take is inference..because u r infering that it created lot of problems..while fact it Science has solved some problems.. Again it can be verified...that makes it a fact.
3 and 4 are clearly inference.

Ques6:
  1. We may suffer but we should not inflict suffering on others.
  2. He was elected the president of the Indian national congress.
  3. Ultimately Man will develop into a superman, if this rate of progress is constant.
  4. Science is the answer to all world problems.
    related posts :critical reasoning practice question.
a) JIJF b) JFIF c) JIJJ d) JFIJ
Answer: d)JFIF For the 4th one “I say education is the only solution to all world problems. Someone else says that Money is the only solution to all world problems. This all are views which depends from person to person and place to place. To add to this everyone knows that there can't be a single solution to all world problems but each has its own role. Hence this is a judgement.”

Ques7:
1. Malaria, caused by unsanitary conditions killed a hundred slum dwellers.
2. The progress of our nation depends on our national character.
3. National prestige will have to be maintained.
4. As the nation progresses, it will have more admirers.

a) IFJI b) IJJI c) FFJI d) FJJI
Ans: IFJI

National character represents the character of the citizens of a nation. Better the national character, the more that nation is bound to progress.

For the first question:
Part 1) Malaria....
Part 2).....caused by unsanitary conditions.....
Part 3)....killed a hundred slum dwellers....
                Must see our post on cat-jumbled-paragraphs-1999-2006
Part1) Simply is a noun or a disease that everyone is aware of so no issues with it..Part 2) speaks about the cause of this disease which might be or might not be true..For e.g we say at times we say that headache is caused by work pressure or due to tensions or etc...In this case too it is just an inference, since on the basis of the condition where the speaker said this would have bad sanitary condition...Part 3) this is the part which has done all the debate..yeh it is a fact by any means but is this part makes whole of the sentence turn into a Fact...NO it is not making whole of the sentence a Fact...so what it is doing ..making it as judgement or inference....Judgement NO since we have some fact and others we can verify..so the clock move towards Inference and hence this is the answer for it...
what you learn from here ? You learn that if a statement contains any Fact then it does not mean that the whole of the statement would be a Fact. Do check what others part of the sentence is telling. This is how we will learn bits by bits about the beauty of FIJ questions.

Ques8:
1)      In the cellular industry, system capacity is a great issue.
2)      As demand for cellular service grows, system operators try to find ways to increase system capacity
3)      One of the easier ways currently adopted to increase capacity is the conventional micro cell approach
4)      however ,control of interference among cells is difficult in the micro cell approach.
5)      prolonged delays in handoff sometimes occur when the micro cell approach is adopted

A)FFFFF
B)JIFFF
C)JIJFF
D)JIJFJ
E)FIFFF
Ans: A)FFFFF
Ques9:
  1. If necessity is the mother of invention, scarcity may be the mother of its cousin, innovation.
  2. As long as staff produces goods on time, managers can stop watching over them while they work.
  3. An average global temperature rise of 4C would wipe out hundreds of species, bring extreme food and water shortage in vulnerable countries and cause catastrophic floods.
  4. Every deal is a new agreement between parties, and such alliances have the potential to become opportunities for permanent, long-term partnerships.
Options are:
  1. JJII
  2. JJFF
  3. IJII
  4. JFFI
Answer: Option 1 - JJII

1. The first statement is certainly judgemental, all would agree

2.The second statement is also a judgement, since "producing goods on time" is not the only management concern, there are concerns too like quality, threshold standards, etc. So its quite judgemental to assume that 'As long as staff produces goods on time, managers can stop watching over them while they work'.


3. This is an inference drawn, from facts and predictions about global warming and its implications.

4. This is again an inference drawn from 'definition of deal'.
Ques:
  1. Global warming is "very likely" to have been caused by human activity, the leading international body studying climate change said in a report today.
  2. The IPCC Report steers clear of policy recommendations, instead providing rigorously scientific assessment of the likely risks.
  3. The likelihood that the phenomenon has been created by the burning of fossil fuels and other actions is greater than 90%, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPCC) concluded in its fourth report.
  4. Global warming is an "unequivocal" fact and is likely to continue for centuries.
Options:
    1. FIFJ 2. IIII 3.IIFJ 4.FJFJ 5.IJFJ
Ans 1 – FIFJ

Ques:
1 What was more scary was the minister’s revelation that terrorist were planning to occupy some uninhabited islands and use them as bases for launching operations on the Indian coasts.

2. The minister, we were told, was also of the view that the recent Indo-US nuclear agreement, too, has made out atomic power plants highly vulnerable to attack.

3. What foments terror is military religiosity and not legitimate grievances.

4. And the increasing terror-graph shows that soft approach will only make matters worse in the coming day.

1) IFJJ 2) IFFI 3) JFJI 4) JIJI 5) IFJI
Ans: Answer is 3 (JFJI)

Explanation
1. Statement is really amazing it check your reading ability. If you observe keenly the question does not have question mark inspite of word "what" that gives an impression it's a judgment
2. Statement is a fact as its not anyone opinion or inference it just told to us that "US-nuclear is harmful to atomic plant" which can be verified by asking minister (better explanation can be done, but I understood it like this)
3. Its one's opinion about what foments terror.
4. Its inference from the statement "increasing terror-graph shows that" depending on the graph one is predicting that soft approach will make matter worse.
Ques:
  1. Inequitable distribution of all kinds of resources is certainly one of the strongest and most sinister sources of conflict.
  2. Even without war, we know that conflicts continue to trouble us — they only change in character.
  3. Extensive disarmament is the only insurance for our future; imagine the amount of resources that can be released and redeployed.
  4. The economies of the industrialized western world derive 20% of their income from the sale of all kinds of arms.
(1)   IJJI (2) JIJF (3) IIJF (4) JIIF (5) IJIF
Ans: 1.Inequitable distribution of all kinds of resources is certainly one of the strongest and most sinister sources of conflict.
This is a Judgment because of the word "certainly"which is can be agreed or disagree.

2.Even without war, we know that conflicts continue to trouble us — they only change in character.
This is inference its bit tricky but "even without war" we are inferring that the war will continue to trouble us.
We can break the sentence into two parts. That way it'd be easy to see why it should be an inference.
1st Part - Even without war, we know that conflicts continue to trouble us - This means, we know that even without war the conflicts continue to trouble us. If the sentence were only till here, this would be treated as a Fact.
2nd Part - they only change in character - This means, since there is no war but conflicts are still troubling us the conflicts have changed in character. This "change of character" has been inferred from the fact that "conflicts continue to trouble us despite there being no wars".
Hence, the whole sentence can be classified as an Inference.

My take on the solution is JIJF for this set.

3. Extensive disarmament is the only insurance for our future; imagine the amount of resources that can be released and redeployed.
This is a Judgment because of the word "only" which is can be agreed or disagree

4. The economies of the industrialized western world derive 20% of their income from the sale of all kinds of arms.
This can be verified by looking at economy graph. Hence Fact


(1) IJJI (2) JIJF (3) IIJF (4) JIIF (5) IJIF
Ques:
  1. Angry at missing out on the unpredicted commodity boom, Tanzaniais preparing to renegotiate gold mining concessions.
  2. The findings of this study indicate that maybe established guidelines and procedures are not being followed with regard to the development, administration and management of distance education programs.
  3. The country's annual report suggested that many of the employees might be relieved of their duties soon.
  4. Internationalization and integration on the campus is about inculcating the notion of equality, diversity, integration and social cohesion within the learning culture.
Options:   1. IFIF    2. FFIJ    3. IIFF    4. FIIF
Ans: FIIF
Ques:
  1. Much like a person might wish for double sixes in rolling dice, recognizing that the outcome rests contingently on natural probabilities, God wills that all humans attain perfection, knowing the ultimate result is contingent upon the vagaries of personal free choice.
  2. If the good and loving God wills that all humans reach happiness or perfection and if humans have the ability to freely choose evil means, cannot humans thwart god's will?
  3. He introduces a distinction between two ways in which God wills events to occur by pointing that God wills some events to occur necessarily, and other events contingently.
  4. Both god and the individual contribute to every human act: God establishes the end and the human selects the means.
1) IFJI 2)JIII 3)IIJF 4)JIJI
Ans: 3) IIJF
Ques:
  1. There are no separate words in Aristotle's vocabulary for "to be" and "to exist"; the question could as well be put by asking: what does a thing's existence consist in?
  2. There are two tasks he allots to this discipline: the investigation of beings in general, and the investigation of a particular being or a set of beings, namely god or the gods.
  3. The term metaphysics does not go back to Aristotle: it seems merely to be a title in early editions of his works namely "Appendix to the Physics".
  4. Aristotle argues that a thing's existence carries with it obedience to the laws of non-contradiction and excluded middle; the argument is mostly negative, opposing those who would reject the laws of logic.
1) JFJI 2) FFFJ 3) IIFJ 4) FIFJ
Ans: 2) FFFJ

Ques:
  1. The recent measures to clean up the city should result in a reduction in the number of mosquitos and also cases of Dengue.
  2. The failure of the Indian cricket team in the world cup is entirely a result of unnecessary experiments by Greg Chappell.
  3. Pandit Ravi Shankar feels that more efforts should be made by the Indian government for the promotion of Indian classical music abroad
  4. Most of the classic B-movie elements are present and correct - no-nonsense storytelling, sensationalist or fantastical subject matter, idiosyncratic characters, dialogue fit for comic books or penny dreadfuls.
Ans: IJFJ

Ques:
  1. The recent ban on playing music while driving will result in a reduction in the number of accidents on roads.
  2. Every enrolment in an Educational institute is a point of contact with the customer and such contacts have the potential to generate further enrolments.
  3. Given the abysmal state of affairs in some public hospitals, the doctor there should either seek employment in private hospitals or go abroad.
  4. It is really paradoxical that some places which experience heavy rainfall also experience severe shortage of water.
  5. The findings of this study indicate that established guidelines and procedures are not being followed with regard to the development, administration and management of distance education programs.
Ans: JIJJI
  1. The recent ban on playing music while driving will result in a reduction in the number of accidents on roads. - This statement is Judgement because of the word "will". If the statement would have been "The recent ban on playing music while driving is expected to result in a reduction in the number of accidents on roads." Then it would have been Inference. "will" shows confirmation which makes it Judgement.
  2. Every enrolment in an Educational institute is a point of contact with the customer and such contacts have the potential to generate further enrolments. - Inference. The latter part is conclusion drawn from the first part.
  3. Given the abysmal state of affairs in some public hospitals, the doctor there should either seek employment in private hospitals or go abroad. - Judgement. Since it expresses approval or disapproval and it is a subjective opinion.
  4. It is really paradoxical that some places which experience heavy rainfall also experience severe shortage of water. - Judgement. use of the word "paradoxial" word makes it judgement.
  5. The findings of this study indicate that established guidelines and procedures are not being followed with regard to the development, administration and management of distance education programmes.-- Inference. As it is a conclusion based on the facts.
Ques:
1.      The day begins with the now-too-familiar deadlines and crisis calls and coordination and chaos and cacophony that investment banking is all about.
2. Yes today was the same but today even while waking up I knew it would be a great day and I was right.
3. Some people join religious groups to find spiritual salvation.
Ans:
1) JUDGEMENT: See when you enter any investment bank what you see is different from what an employee over there see the environment. This is called perception which differs from person to person. For many investment banking is more than that and probably not at all what is specified. I might define an investement bank as a place where many intellectuals gather discuss the economic and finance matters etc.... See in my case investment bank is totally different. So, this is a judgement.

2) JUDGEMENT: This was tricky. But I think at the end that it should be a judgement. Why so ? This is because let suppose in place of the speaker I am saying the above statement. So what ever I am saying depends upon me i.e how I am seeing my life and my mood. At times it may look boring at another time it might seem challenging, lively. So what I am saying is just depending upon time to time. So it cannot be fact also as no facts are provided nor we can verify them. Hence it cannot be an inference also. For this I might have gone with inference if not judgement. So at last its a judgement from my view.


3) INFERENCE: As I do when I am in confusion, breaking sentence into parts. First part says that people join religious group. This is fact since we all know that many people do join religious group. Second part, they join for spiritual salvation. This one cannot be fact totally. This might be the reason or this might not be. But the speaker might have drwan his/her conclusion on the basis of FIRST PART and with some data/facts so as to say. Hence there is some conclusion given and also the basis of it. Hence it is an inference.

Note: The sentences that express your own personal feelings (only yours and NOT others) are all FACTS.
You can verify the fact by validating with the person who had expressed his feelings. Take it for granted, that such statements are facts.

However, if someone says, that some other person may have felt something or it looks like the person felt this way,.. are all judgments.
Ques:
1. Some Indian companies have emerged to be among the world's most competitive entities and, therefore, they strategize synergies between domestic units and foreign acquisitions.
2. Sachin lives in Bandra, property rates there are huge, and expected to go up.
3.15th august 2010 is Friday.
4. I love ice-creams.
5. How many cones are there on roof top?
Ans: 1. I feel this is inference.The only part I looked is "therefore" as it states that only "Indian companies that have emerged to be among the world's most competitive entities" are responsible for "stratergise synergies between domestic units and foreign acquisitions." while there can be many other reasons too.
            I too think that statement 1 to be inference but IMS simcat3 ques 56 part (a) which is this statement itself says it to be a FACT. Reason they say that these can be verified.
            Hey, i feel this statement is a fact. Just take this example and u will understand it better:

Some Indian companies have emerged to be among the world's most competitive entities and, therefore, they will strategize synergies between domestic units and foreign acquisitions.

Had this been the sentence, then it would have been an inference, coz “will” indicates something that will be done in future
=>u r drawing conclusions based on the fact stated earlier.
But, here in our case, both the parts of the sentence are very much facts.
2.                  It seems to be an inference as Sachin lives in Bandra and property rates there are huge are facts that could be verified and here as the latter part of the sentence infer from a fact given in first part i would say its inference.
3.                  Fact
4.                  Fact
5.                   
Ques: software and technology innovation can help strengthen healthcare, protect environment, improve education and extend social and economic opportunities.
Ans: well to lay my point on this let me start with this example by with some changes... Now the statement says "software and technology innovation will help strengthen healthcare, protect environment, improve education and extend social and economic opportunities."..
What will you now say about this statement...what is this among F/I/J..this might be a judgment or if u have some data then can be an inference also, but not a fact being sure 100% for which you have no references cannot be a fact...
but now in place of "..will help.." I use "...can help..." then you can term this statement as a FACT because you can see that due to software technology much advancement is been done till date so surely it has also the capability to turn things for other field also hence this is true which in turn is a FACT...since what is true is a FACT isn't it ??
Note: The statement 'I can crack CAT' is a fact.
No one told that facts are open to verification right now. The statement can be either true or false and can be verified, albeit at a later point of time. Do everything that can be done to crack cat and the statement would be true. Do not do whatever is required to crack cat and the statement would be false. A fact can be either true or false. And your statement that u can crack cat is true since it is not an impossible thing. Even if the probability of it happeneing are 1 or 1/10000000 , it is a true statement and everyone agrees to it. Here, "can" is the most important word.
Similarly for the statement
"Software and service companies can help.."
is true. Bcoz it has got many innovations or is capable of innovating things that can help strengthen healthcare, protect environment, improve education, and extend socio-economic opportunities.
If I say
"Ministers can help..." the same second part, even this statement is true. Whether it will actually happen or not is a different matter. Let it do all it can to help, and it will certainly help.

Some amt of Mathemetics also helps.
U might know, "can" refers to a possibility. If even if it is remotely possible, we say it is true. Only if it is impossible, we can it is false.

If the statements had "will help" or any 'certain' word, that indicates that no matter what these are going to help..., then it would be a judgement.

So, the statements with 'can' is whether it is possible or not. If it is possible, it is a fact; even if it is not possible, it is a fact only.
Note: So the statement is "How many cones are there on roof top? " ..the answer to this question can be 1) there are none cones 2) there are 10 or 20 or X cones. or lastly 3) its not a cone its a fodder or any other thing..
Therefore in all this answer we have some certainty..none of the answers are ambiguous nor any indirect statement coming up ...what does this mean ? This means that the questions asked has some fact attached to it..or if there are no facts then we can verify it ..isn't it yeh there is...
So this statement i.e "How many cones are there on roof top? " is not a judgement at all nor an inference...its a FACT ..

Note: "Because the old man stayed indoors all the time and did not receive any visitors, no one discovered his dead body for days."

This sentence is an inference.

Here, 'the old man stayed indoors all the time and did not receive any visitors' is a fact and from this fact it has been inferred (the qualifier for inferring being 'Because') that 'no one discovered his dead body for days'. This conclusion may or may not be true. For example it may be possible that the body may not have been discovered because it was hidden in the closet wrapped in an air-tight bag.

The best way to find out inferences I guess is to break sentences in two parts and then check if one part is dependent on and drawing a conclusion from the other part, which can be calssified as a fact.

Similarly, the statement 'Some Indian companies have emerged to be among the world's most competitive entities and, therefore, they strategise synergies between domestic units and foreign acquisitions.' is also an inference.
Here, 'Some Indian companies have emerged to be among the world's most competitive entities' is a fact and from this fact it has been inferred (the qualifier for inferring being 'therefore') that 'therefore, they strategise synergies between domestic units and foreign acquisitions'. This conclusion may or may not be true.
Ques: 'For more than 40 years, quality has been Gordon Clark's middle name with 9 out of 10 wave riders relying on his surfboards'

here i feel "9 out of 10 wave riders relying on his surfboards" is a fact which can be verified. now by this we are able to conclude that quality is his middle name. so this should be inference
Ques:
A. Software and technology innovation can help strengthen healthcare, protect envirnoment, improve education and extend social and economic opportunities.
B. If computers and the Internet continue changing our world at the pace they have done so far, their ultimate impact will be far greater than anything we can imagine.
C. At this rate, student teachers will probably have the skills and knowledge to incorporate technology into their classrooms in meaningful ways after they graduate.
D. Information and communications technology is opening up enormous opportnities for people to participate in the global economy so that the prospects of a highly educated young person have the potential to match those of a person in Europe or the United States.

1) FIJI 2) FIIF 3) FJJI 4) FIJF 5) FIII
Ans: A presents verifiable data, so it is a FACT.
B is an INFERENCE as it predicts that computers and the Internet will have a far greater impact in the future, based on the current trends.
C is also a prediction. So this is an INFERENCE as well.
Finally, D is also an INFERENCE as it moves from the known - 'Information and communications ... economy', to the unkown - 'prospects ... the United States'.

Thus the sequence formed is FIII. Hence, [5]
Ques:
A. Across Latin America and Central Asia, governments like Bolivia, Venezuela and Kazakhastan have reasserted state control over their oil and gas resources.
B. Many national companies have swallowed small-time companies in the name of development.
C. State-owned oil companies around the world now control nearly five time the reserves of their private rivals.
D. Corporate behemoths such as ExxonMobil and Shell may be among the largest private corporations in the world, but their underhand approach is known to few.

1) FIFJ 2) FJFI 3) FFJJ 4) FJFJ 5) FJJJ
Ans: A is definite and verifiable information about certain nations. Thus it is a FACT.
B is clearly a JUDGEMENT, as it uses terms like 'swallowed' and 'in the name of development', which express the author's bias.
C provides statistical data and thus can be classified as a FACT.
D is again a JUDGEMENT, as the author gives his opinion about the companies' 'underhand approach'.
“While solving FIJs I read a sentence and always ask this question to myself, "author ko kaise pata?" This helps me decide whether its F/I/J”
Ques:
1.                  The rapid growth of the telecommunication industry has drawn many engineers from the military industry to this field.
2.                  Many new engineers who are close to graduating are also keen to get into the field of telecommunication.
3.                  Engineers already in telecommunications and working on small specialized areas would like to broaden their knowledge.
4.                  Fresh engineers need to lean more about telecommunications as soon as possible.
5.                  The wireless information superhighway may be our future goal, yet we still have a long way to go.
(A)  FIFJJ (B) FIIJJ (C) FFFJJ (D) FFIJJ (E) IFFJI

Ans: (D) FFIJJ
                Must see our post on cat-jumbled-paragraphs-1999-2006
Ques:
  1. There are not many philosophical questions to ask; we have already asked most of them.
  2. History presents us with many different answers to each philosophical question, making it easier to ask questions than to answer them.
  3. Each individual has to discover his own answers to philosophical questions.
  4. Questions such as 'does God exist?' or 'is there life after death?' are not answered in any encyclopedia.
  5. Reading what other people have believed can help formulate our own view of life.
(A)  JJJFI (B) FJJFI (C) JIJFI (D) FFJFI (E) FJJFF
Ans: (C) JIJFI
Ques:
1. As the custodian of a revered national sport, the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) has a poor record.
2. India's domestic competitions are ignored.
3. There are few facilities for the millions of cricket-mad poor.
4. This week, the national team—representing a billion-plus Indians—suffered a series defeat to Australia (population: 20m).
5. But when it comes to making money, the BCCI, which claims a monopoly on cricket in India, does much better.


a)JIFII b)IJFIJ c)JIIFI d)JIFFI e)IJIFJ
Ans: In statement A, ‘poor record’, ‘custodian of a revered sport’ etc. are opinions that may vary from person to person, Therefore it is a judgment.
In statement B, the word ‘ignored’ and in statement C the phrase ‘few facilities for the millions’ are inferences based on certain facts and experiences.
Statement D is definitely a fact as it states verifiable data.
In statement E, the words ‘claims a monopoly’ and ‘does much better' are conclusions based on certain facts and conduct of BCCI. Therefore they are inferences. As a result, the correct answer is JIIFI.
Hence, the correct answer is option 3.
Ques:
1]
  1. The common aim of theistic Vedantins was to discredit the Advaita doctrine of an absolute reality, Brahman, which is totally without quality and difference, and of which material things and selves are but the illusory appearances.
  2. The Advaita doctrine is the work of men destitute of the qualities which cause individuals to be chosen by the Supreme Person, purveyors of hollow and vicious arguments.
  3. Ramanuja and Madhva assumed the priority of perceptual knowledge and did not deny that scripture, where its meaning is plain, trumps all other claims, including those founded on perception.
  4. Since this experience is, undeniably, of distinct objects and selves, the presumption is already against an interpretation of the texts which treat such experience as illusory.
  1. FFIJ
  2. IFII
  3. FFJI
  4. JFJI
Ans: Statement 1 is a judgement as the opinion of theistic Vedantins is given. Statement 2 is a fact as information about Advaita doctrine is given. Statement 3 is a judgement as the opinions of Ramanuja and Madhva is given.
Statement 4 is an inference as a conclusion is made.
2]
  1. Eudemonia consists, rather, in living well or doing well, in certain deliberative activities, and not in any psychological state which results from these.
  2. Aristotle especially appeals to those who argue that the proper moral ambition is neither, at one extreme, to cultivate a pure inner self nor, at another, to promote the universal god of man, but to live responsibly among one's fellows in whose practices and traditions one shares.
  3. Eudemonia is the supreme good as it is the one thing individuals want for its own sake, and which explains their seeking of other goods, like health and money.
  4. The idea that the good life is one of deliberative activities done with the aim of performing them well or excellently is not a vacuous one.
  1. JFJI
  2. IFJI
  3. FFJI
  4. IFFJ
Ans: Statement 1 is an inference as the use of the word rather means that though a conclusion has been made it is not of the desired nature. Statement 2 is a fact as information about the commonality of belief between the given thinkers and Aristotle is shown.
Statement 3 is a fact as information.
Statement 4 is a judgement as there is an opinion that the very idea of a good life is not a vacuous one.
3]
  1. It is understood that institutional acknowledgment _ in the form of truth, commissions, reparations and justice like trials of perpetrators can begin partially to restore the symbolic order that is another casualty of the work of violence.
  2. The power of chosen traumas derives in large part from the fact that they remain unmoored, thus cutting off possible forms of social and cultural healing that can rebuild trust in social institutions.
  3. In some other cases, however, collective trauma can produce far from troubling responses as some traumatized persons and groups turn to hatred and violence as ways of coping with traumatic wounds.
  4. In institutional acknowledgment most often initiatives taken on the level of the nation-state may coincide with more local actions designed to reduce the trauma of massive social disruption, through healing rituals and other collective symbolic activities designed to aid recovery and rebuild social trust.
  1. JFJI
  2. IJFI
  3. JIIF
  4. FIFJ
Ans: Statement 1 is a judgement as the word understood indicates an opinion formed by people regarding institutional acknowledgement.
Statement 2 is an inference as there is conclusion or observation about the power of traumas.
Statement 3 is an inference as there is a conclusion about the impact of collective trauma.
Statement 4 is a fact as information about the way institutional acknowledgment initiatives may coincide with local actions.
Ques: 1.Many people have a vague notion that all the original biblical text are preserved in vaults somewhere and translators work from those original texts
2.The Earliest surviving versions of the gospels are handwritten copies dating from centuries after the original texts were written .
3.Also,we don't just have a single version of each gospel ;we have many versions and even more fragments
4.None of the versions agree with each other , so there are more points of disagreement between manuscript than there are words in gospel
Ans: FFFF
Ques:
1. The law, most of us would agree, should be society's protection again prejudice.
2. That does not imply that emotion play no legitimate role in the legal affairs, for often emotion can help people to see a situation clearly doing justice to the concern that ought to be addressed
3.Emotions are not intrinsically opposed to reason for they involve pictures of the world and evaluation
4.But there are some emotions whose role in the law has always been controversial:viz disgust and shame
Ans: JIIF (simple one)
this is what the solution key says:
The author states her opinion regarding what the law's function should be ( and expects others to agree with her) so A is a judgment .B is an inference regarding the role of emotions in legal affairs, based on their known role in general .In C , the author infers how emotions relate to reason based on how emotion work. D is fact as the role of disgust and shame in law can be easily verified through external resources .So we get JIIF.
Ques:
1. Many of the buildings in Manhattan are anchored to
bedrock
2.But even their steel beam foundations cannot last forever,
and eventually these structure will start to topple and fall
3.They will also be buffeted by hurricanes, which we're bound to have more
of ,as climate change gives us more extreme weather
4.After being under attack by the element for a long time, the building
will inevitably fall.
Ans: statement A is a simple and easily verifiable statement and hence it is a fact. B can be considered as an inference, as it predicts what will happen to the structures, based on their current state .C is also a prediction -this time about hurricanes, based on the fact of climate change- so it is also an inference. D is another prediction, and therefore also an inference. Thus we have the sequence FIII ......
Ques:
1.Many people are so afraid of being only with themselves that they shut themselves off from the guidance ,clarity and wisdom that can come from communion with the divine through solitary meditation ,prayer and contemplation.
2.Based on this knowledge , your ego can then remain in control ; you can judge others and avoid the possibility of authentic , spontaneous spiritual experience
3.Pushing integration could foster better bonds between ethnic communities ,keep religious extremism in check and prevent the building -up of grievances that sparked rioting.
4 All abortion are carried out under a single catch - all clause , which permits abortion to protect the woman's physical or mental health.
Ans: First statement is a judgment since it expresses a view of the person who has said it-"Many people are so afraid of being only with themselves that they shut themselves off"
second statement is an inference based statement since it says that 'based on this knowledge' followed by a conclusion i.e "your go can then remain in control ...."
Third statement is clearly a judgment since it expresses a view of the person who has said . Fourth is a direct fact......"
Ques:
1. No person is entirely isolated being: it is impossible for a person to do anything seriously or permanently hurtful to himself, without mischief reaching at least to his near connections, and often far beyond them.

2. The one country in which carbon taxes have led to a large decrease in emission is Denmark, whose per capita carbon dioxide emission were nearly 15 percent lower in 2005 than in 1990.

3. Repression is the most powerful and pervasive defense mechanism, and it may work to push unacceptable id impulses out of awareness and back into the unconscious mind.

4. Despite the many platitudes on climate change, not much has been done to bridge the yawning gap in the stands taken by the developed and developing countries.
Ans: First statement is a J since it expresses a view of the person who has said it-","It is impossible for a person ... himself".Second statement is clearly a fact ( no explanations).....Third is judgment because it is the author's personal opinion.....fourth is a judgment again it is an opinion-"not much has been done"....
Ques:
1. A man who is a drunkard or a gambler hurts his family and those depend on him; therefore shouldn't we also be concerned with his actions?

2. The recent initiatives of networks and companies like Cipla ,
Aids Care ,Wockhard would lead to availability of much needed drug to a large of affected people

3.First ,you prevent policy makers from turning the tax into a cash
cow .Carbon tax discussions always seem to devolve into gleeful suggestions for ways to spend the revenue.

4. If the cut off were any later an aborted fetus it would have been born alive, hence the 1967 act has to set a limit of 28 weeks for such abortions.
Ans: First statement is a judgment based since it expresses a view of the person who has said it-"A drunkard .....depend on himself". Second statement is an inference types of sentences, since the first part of the sentences is information and the second part is a conclusion based on it. Third statement is a judgment- " discussion always seem to devolve into gleeful suggestions".
Fourth statement is a inference statement .The second part of the statement is a conclusion drawn and the first part of the statement is the base information. Hence JIJI.
Ques:
1. Much like a person might wish for double sixes in rolling dice, recognizing that the outcome rests contingently on natural probabilities, God wills that all human attain perfection, knowing the ultimate result is contingent upon the vagaries of personal free choice.
2. If the good and loving God wills that all human reach happiness or perfection and if human have the ability to freely choose evil means, cannot humans thwart god's will?
3. He introduces a distinction between two ways in which God wills events to occur by pointing that God wills some events to occur necessarily and other events contingently.
4. Both god and the individual contribute to every human act: God establishes the end and the human selects the means.
Ans: Statement 1 is an inference as there is a conclusion as the person is expected to recognize how outcomes arise .
Statement 2 is an inference as there is an inherent questioning being done on man's ability to choose between good and evil .
Statement 3 is a judgment as it is the opinion of a author about the way the god works .
Statement 4 is a fact as it gives the information about the contribution of god and individual in every human act .....
Ques: (1)The decision to use a common logo should have been taken at the 17th session of FAO Inter-Governmental Group
on Tea, which met in Nairobi for three days from November 28.
(2)This common logo is similar to 'woolmark' that is used by woollen garment manufacturers worldwide.
(3)According to mid-term projections, global black tea production is projected to grow at 1.8% from 2005 to
2016, when it is expected to reach 2,927 million kg compared to an annual growth rate of 2.3% during the last
decade.
(4)In keeping with the overall situation, in African countries countries too the growth in annual output can be
expected to slow down.
Ans: Statement 1 appears to be a fact but it is Judgement ,hint "should have been" .It implies the writer's feeling.
Statement 2 : THe similarity is not in appearance but in the use to which it is put .Hence a fact
Statement 3 : It is a Fact as the statement record some data mentioned
in the mid term projections .It is a mere reproduction of a piece of information
hence it is a fact.
Statement 4 is an inference as it clearly expresses what author feels will follow the overall situation hence it is a conclusion based on the fact...thus an inference...
Hence JFFI
Ques:
1. The agreement also envisages commencement of negotiations to liberalize services trade between the two countries next year.
2. Currently, iron ore and other mineral account for about 60% of India’s export to china
3.That some of these items figure in the FTA list should be, on the face of it, ominous for India, some expert feel.
4. Since India's exports are broad based, the china -Pak FTA won't have a widespread effect on India's export to china.
Ans: Statement 1: The agreement and what it says can be verified Hence it is a fact
Statement 2:The information given be verified ,Hence a fact
Statement 3: This records the opinion of " some experts", hence it is the piece of information that one has "heard seen or read " and also the fact that 'some experts ' hold this opinion is verifiable too; hence it is a fact.
Statement 4:This is the speakers conclusion regarding what my happen , based on some known facts . This is an inference .
Ques:
1. Introducing the organized sport programs for youngsters is the only hope for Indian sport.
2. The general public is beginning to recognize the international standing of the Indian golf players who earn more money than the Indian cricketing team.
3. In this age when the kids are electronically inclined and digitally divided the hi-tech gizmo is also an attraction for the kids to hit a ball and then check the digital readouts.
4. News of corporate investing in the games at the junior level is required not only in golf but also in other sport
Ans: Statement 1: The writer is obviously expressing his opinion. Hence it is a judgment.

Statement 2: Fact because it records a trend (verification is possible)

Statement 3: The writer states this statement based on certain facts (in this age when ..... divided )
available to him and his observations . The sentence is thus an inference.

Statement 4:"news is required means such news is desired. So, clearly the writer is expressing what he feels or thinks, hence judgment.

Ques:
1. The sharp increase in air traffic combined with the aircraft acquistion spree by airline companies has created a large demand for allied services in the industry.

2. Jupiter capital's investing Rs.900 crore in specialised aviation infrastructure will lead to its offering customized high -end technology solutions to address the aviation industry needs.

3. The security concerns emanating from the fact that the bidders happen to be Chinese companies are unwarranted.

4. Jupiter Capital which made news when it acquired Asianet, the leading Malyalam television channel, has other project on the anvil.
Ans: Statement 1: The sentence gives information that can be verified - hence fact

Statement 2:Here the writer is expressing his impression as to what might happen in future . He bases his statements on facts hence it is an inference.

Statement 3:"unwarranted" means 'not responsible or necessary'. The writer is calling security concerns unwarranted ,whatever the reasons. It is his personal feeling .Hence the sentence is a judgement

Statement 4: The information is verifiable . Hence the statement is a fact.
Ques:
  1. An especially important element in the differentiation of science and religion was the virtual abandonment of appeals to final causes -those Aristotelian ends or purposes in things which had for centuries been supposed to have been set for them by god.
  2. Browne, perhaps was prescient in suspecting that the conception of a purely mechanical universe would transmute into one of a universe so autonomous and explanatorily self sufficient that there could no longer be any reason to invoke god at all.
  3. Someone was eventually bound to ask whether the glory of the king's search really required the thing to have been concealed by god.
  4. It required less prescience to predict that the idea mentioned above , of man -as-scientist approximating to god , and might give way to a notion of humanity dignity and pride that required no reference to god.
Ans: 1-Fact as it gives information regarding the differentiation of science and religion.

2-Inference as the use of word perhaps suggests that the opinion of Browne was analyzed and a conclusion of his understanding that was drawn.

3-Fact as information about the question that could be raised about the glory of the king's search

4-Inference as there is a conclusion about the notions of human dignity and pride based on the fact in the earlier part of statement.....
Ques: 1. A recent study from Britain reports that almost half of its millionaires are woman , and the figure is growing at a whooping 11 percent a year.

2. A significant part of the rise in women's wealth status has come from their marrying well, and divorcing better.

3. It's a worrying trend as it gives credence to the belief that women succeed socially through the man they attach themselves to.

4.It reinforces the myth that finding prince charming and marrying him is still a girl's best friend .
Ans: 1. A recent study from Britain reports that almost half of its millionaires are woman , and the figure is growing at a whooping 11 percent a year.-clearly a fact as both the statements are verifiable...no issues

2. A significant part of the rise in women's wealth status has come from their marrying well, and better.-Judgment as it is author's opinion although verifiable but significant makes it little abstract

3. It's a worrying trend as it gives credence to the belief that women succeed socially through the man they attach themselves to.Judgment as author is just giving an opinion without any fact supporting it debatable

4.It reinforces the myth that finding prince charming and marrying him is still a girl's best friend .Judgment as the statement says " it reinforces" which gives us an indication that the author has some fact but how strong is that fact and is it completely supporting the conclusion or not is unknown hence Judgment

Ques:
1.American couples looking to adopt children appear to be increasingly turning to India

2 .Over the last three years,945 Indian children have found homes in
America

3 . Italy comes next with 419 Indian children being adopted in the past three years

4. Spain with 301 adoptions and Denmark with 194 should also be considered significant
Ans: 1.American couples looking to adopt children appear to be increasingly turning to India
Fact . Because we can verify that american couples are increasing or not.

2 .Over the last three years,945 Indian children have found homes in
America
Fact. Thats just information.

3 . Italy comes next with 419 Indian children being adopted in the past three years
Fact. Information again

4. Spain with 301 adoptions and Denmark with 194 should also be considered significant
Jugdement. Even though u gotta fact he's sayin it should be so thts his opinion.

Ques: 1. Buddhism , which flourished in ancient India as one of its great faith traditions ,is today a minority religion in the country.
2.Its followers are numerically the fourth minority at the national level - next to the Muslims , Christians and Sikhs.
3.Buddhism cannot exist without faith - the soul of Buddhism.
4. Buddhism preaches the theory of cause and effect which makes it relevant in the present world and can be used to overcome the problems throughout the globe.
Ans: 1.Buddhism , which flourished in ancient India as one of its great faith traditions ,is today a minority religion in the country.-Clearly a verifiable statement so a fact I think every one has answered this as fact only....

2.Its followers are numerically the fourth minority at the national level - next to the Muslims , Christians and Sikhs.Again a verifiable statement so a fact

3.Buddhism cannot exist without faith - the soul of Buddhism- This is the personal opinion of the author and it is not based on any fact so its a judgment.

4Buddhism preaches the theory of cause and effect which makes it relevant in the present world and can be used to overcome the problems throughout the globe.-Inference as the first part of the statement-" Buddhism preaches the theory of cause and effect" is a fact that can be verified from the Buddhist books and the second part of the statement-"which makes it relevant in the present world and can be used to overcome the problems throughout the globe" Is a conclusion based on the former part hence an inference.

Ques:
1)            Professional intellectuals are the voice of a culture and are, therefore, its leaders, its integrators and its bodyguards.

2) Bankruptcy is defined as the state of being at the end of one’s resources.

3) Honda introduces a small, user friendly motorcycle into a U.S. market dominated by big bikes and a black-leather-jacket image.

4) He had always believed that the sheep were able to understand what he said.

5) In order to meet the increasing demand, I feel it was essential for ASMO to increase its production capacity.

6) The root cause of terrorism is the erosion of family values and commercialization of education.

7) Julian's outrageous courtroom theatrics regularly made the front pages of the newspapers

I think, therefore I am and I should be, because I think.

9) To maintain its pre-eminent position (and to earn its high fees) the Firm seeks out the cream of each year’s crop of business school graduates.

10)The government replaced the old EPZ regime by a new scheme of “Special Economic Zones” (SEZs) with several lucrative incentives/benefits that were not available in the earlier scheme and this policy is expected to give a big push to exports, employment and investment in SEZs.
Ans:
1. J [since the statement is not verifiable and also contains a lot of subjective generalisation,so it’s a judgement]
2. F[its verifiable and is fully objective, hence a fact]
3. F[we can verify about the product thus the statement is a fact]
4. F[again the statement is verifiable from the person, so is a fact]
5. I [a conclusion about something based on a known factor,thus the statement is an inference]
6. J [it is a generalised statement and mind not hold true for all cases, thus is a judgement]
7. F [verifiable,whether julian was doing it or not, thus is a fact]
8. J [who is the I? not verifiable and also glorification of the subject I, thus will fall in the category of judgement]
9. I [a conclusion based on a fact, therefore an inference]
10. I [the govt. did something which will result in something, thus an inference or a conclusion based on certain facts]

Ques: 1.In the two or three following centuries, abhidhamma texts were composed, systematizing and thus interpreting the teachings in the form of intricate analyses of the working of the mind.
2. The new texts were ascribed by the mahayanists to the buddha , as they held that visionary and meditative experience could still contact him or draw on the wisdom that had informed him.
3. Soon after Buddha died, a monastic council was held to agree on the contents of his teachings, which were to be passed on by communal chanting
4. The mahayana saw the earlier teaching as provisional ones, and included in their texts a critique of the early schools, of which there had developed around eighteen.
Ans:
1.In the two or three following centuries , abhidhamma texts were composed ,systematizing and thus interpreting the teachings in the form of intricate analyses of the working of the mind.- Inference as conclusion is drawn based on the fact that can be verified from Buddhist books...
2.The new texts were ascribed by the mahayanists to the buddha , as they held that visionary and meditative experience could still contact him or draw on the wisdom that had informed him.-Judgment as the opinion is not backed by the stetment that is verifiable "visionary and meditative experience "-again something abstract
3.Soon after Buddha died , a monastic council was held to agree on the contents of his teachings ,which were to be passed on by communal chanting-Clearly a fact.
4. The mahayana saw the earlier teaching as provisional ones , and included in their texts a critique of the early schools ,of which there had developed around eighteen.-the first part of the statement-"The mahayana saw the earlier teaching as provisional ones" is a conclusion as it can be derived from the other part of the statement which is a verifiable fact.....


Ques:
1. A study of 500 youngsters revealed that fathers who do not set clear limits for their kids are more likely to have heavier children.
2. Childhood obesity is growing in Australia, with more than 20% preschool children either overweight or obese.
3. Obese school children are very likely to become obese adults.
4. When parents eat a variety of food that is low in fat and sugar and high in fiber, children learn to like these foods as well.

Ans: 1. A study of 500 youngsters revealed that fathers who do not set clear limits for their kids are more likely to have heavier children.-Inference as the conclusion is backed by a study of 5000 youngstes
2.Childhood obesity is growing in Australia , with more than 20% preschool children either overweight or obese.-Clearly a fact
3.Obese school children are very likely to become obese adults.-an opinion -Judgment
4.When parents eat a variety of food that is low in fat and sugar and high in fiber , children learn to like these foods as well.-again a judgment as both the part are not verifiable and hence it is just an opinion.


Ques: A. Some people join religious groups to find spiritual salvation.
B. People join groups because of the ideals they espouse.
C. They forget why they joined in the first place.
D. All said and done, I haven’t been able to become like a boat on the river of life either

Ans:

Ques: 1.Export account for 60 percent of the industry's revenues-an indication perhaps that the Indian biotech industry is yet to get its domestic marketing act together.
2. Repression is the founadation from which all other defence mechanism work; the goal of every defence mechanism is to repress, or push threatening impulses out of awareness.
3. The earth has the availabilty of oxygen and other gases in sufficient amount; Moon should have a similar atmosphere because of its proximity to the earth....
4.One thing that makes developing countries see red in the climate change discourse is talk of emmission cuts based on present emission levels, which punishes poorer countries which pollute less.
Ans:
1.Export account for 60 percent of the industry's revenues-an indication perhaps that the Indian biotech industry is yet to get its domestic marketing act together.-the first part of the statement-"Export account for 60 percent of the industry's revenue" serves as a fact for the next part so its an inference
2.Repression is the founadation from which all other defence mechanism work; the goal of every defence mechanism is to repress , or push threatening impulses out of awareness.-Judgment as it is author's opinion
3.The earth has the availabilty of oxygen and other gases in sufficient amount; Moon should have a similar atmosphere because of its proximity to the earth....-here an inference is drawn about Moon's climate as per its location with respect to earth
4.One thing that makes developing countries see red in the climate change discourse is talk of emmission cuts based on present emission levels,which punishes poorer countries which pollute less.-this is a judgment as both the part are not verifiable and hence its just an opinion not based on any fact

Ques: 1.By censoring the actions of others they are deprived of the oppurtunity of exchanging error for truth :if they are wrong , they loose what is almost as great a benefit the clearer perception and livelier impression of truths.
2.If society fail to educate a person to its mode of proper conduct,society as a whole is guity.
3.The individual as long as he has not harmed others does not deserveto be punished .
4.According to all statistical indication , the sarva shiksha abhiyan has manged to keep pace with ambitious goals.
Ans:
1.By censoring the actions of others they are deprived of the oppurtunity of exchanging error for truth :if they are wrong , they loose what is almost as great a benefit the clearer perception and livelier impression of truths-this is author's opinion hence a judgment also it cannot be a fact because people can have different opinion regarding truth
2.If society fail to educate a person to its mode of proper conduct,society as a whole is guity.-Clearly a judgment as again its author's opinion also no part of the statement is a fact...
3.The individual as long as he has not harmed others does not deserveto be punished .-Judgment- no issues
4.According to all statistical indication , the sarva shiksha abhiyan has manged to keep pace with ambitious goals.- Its an inference as the first part of the statement is a fact supporting the other part also the other part is not verifiable because whether shiksha samiti has managed to keep pace or not can vary from person to person.

Ques: 1.For good urban, suburban and adjacent land use ,we will need to resort increasingly to public ownership of strategic land areas.
2.Private land ownership has , in the past , clearly favored quick returns over environmentally sound use.
3.Only the state is capable of using such land to achieve social and aesthetic goals .
4.But given the bureaucracy and corruption in the municipal government ,it is likely that even the state will not be able to achieve anything substantial.
Ans:
1.For good urban ,suburban and adjacent land use ,we will need to resort increasingly to public ownership of strategic land areas. - Judgment as it is author's personal opinion.
2.Private land ownership has , in the past , clearly favored quick returns over environmentally sound use.-Fact as it can be verified
3.Only the state is capable of using such land to achieve social and aesthetic goals .-Judgement :the use of the word only makes it more of an opinion rather than a fact.
4.But given the bureaucracy and corruption in the municipal government ,it is likely that even the state will not be able to achieve anything substantial.-Inference as the first part of the statement-"given the bureaucracy and corruption in the municipal government" is a fact and based on this fact the other part of the statement is concluded.
                Must see our post on cat-jumbled-paragraphs-1999-2006
Ques: 1.A nano particle is a microscopic particle - the size of one thousand the thickness of a single strand of human hair.
2.These particles are currently used in electronics , cosmetics and chemical industries
3. A study on these particles suggest that these particles should damage DNA and lead to cancer
4.This field is currently an area of intense scientific research and has a long way to go.
Ans:
1.A nano particle is a microscopic particle - the size of one thousand the thickness of a single strand of human hair.-Fact (verifiable from the books omn nanoparticles)
2.These particles are currently used in electronics , cosmetics and chemical industries -Fact same reason
3. A study on these particles suggest that these particles should damage DNA and lead to cancer-Inference as the part of the statement-"suggest that these particles should damage DNA and lead to cancer" is concluded from the study done on these particles. I wonder why some you have marked it as a fact....
4.This field is currently an area of intense scientific research and has a long way to go.- Judgment- author's opinion.



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