Monday, 16 December 2013

Tiss-Irma Social issue :WOMEN EMPOWERMENT

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Topics covered :GENDER EMPOWERMENT, PC-PNDT ACT, WOMEN RESERVATION BILL,SELF HELP GROUP,PROTECTION OF WOMEN FROM DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ACT-2005,VERMA PANEL RECOMMENDATION FOR PREVENTION OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT OF WOMEN,CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISION FOR WOMEN
GENDER EMPOWERMENT

  • Gender Empowerment is conceived as a process by which women can overcome many of the hurdles that they face such as education, work status, employment opportunities, health care, social security, position in decision making by virtue of their gender. 
  • Thus gender empowerment veritably implies empowerment of women to do away with subordination or discrimination and injustices done to them in male dominated society.
  • Measures taken by the Government of India include the establishment of the National Commission for Women(NCW), Rashtriya Mahila Kosh(RMK), launching of Indira Mahila Yojana(IMY), Balika Samridhi Yojana(BSY) and Rural Women’s Development and Empowerment Project(RWDEP). Formulating a National Policy for Empowerment of Women and Setting up a National Resource Centre for women are other efforts of the context undertaken by government in the interests of women.


PC-PNDT ACT
The PC-PNDT Act (Pre conception and Pre Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex selection) Act -1994) was enacted on 20 September 1994 with the intent to prohibit prenatal diagnostic techniques for determination of the sex of the fetus leading to female feticide. That is to say the preliminary object was to put a check on female feticide. No doubt the bare perusal of the Act indicates that it is a draconic act from the point of its effect on radiologists/sonologists. The Act does not offer any escape to the erring radiologist/sonologist. The basic features of the PC-PNDT Act are:
  •  Registration under Section (18) of the PC-PNDT Act.
  •  Written consent of the pregnant woman and prohibition of communicating the sex of fetus under Section 5 of the Act.
  •  Maintenance of records as provided under Section 29 of the Act.
  •  Creating awareness among the public at large by placing the board of prohibition on sex determination.
  •  The Act penalizes all the errants, either involved in sex determination or non-maintenance of records.



WOMEN RESERVATION BILL

Women's Reservation Bill or the The Constitution (108th Amendment) Bill, is a pending bill in India which proposes to amend the Constitution of India to reserve 33 per cent of all seats in the Lower house of Parliament of India, the Lok Sabha, and in all state legislative assemblies for women. The seats to be reserved in rotation will be determined by draw of lots in such a way that a seat shall be reserved only once in three consecutive general elections. The Upper House Rajya Sabha passed the bill on 9 Mar 2010. As of March 2013, the Lower House Lok Sabha has not yet voted on the bill.

SELF HELP GROUP

A self-help group (SHG) is a village-based financial intermediary usually composed of 10–20 local women. Most self-help groups are located in India, though SHGs can also be found in other countries, especially in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Members make small regular savings contributions over a few months until there is enough capital in the group to begin lending. Funds may then be lent back to the members or to others in the village for any purpose. In India, many SHGs are 'linked' to banks for the delivery of microcredit. Self-Help Group may be registered or unregistered. It typically comprises a group of micro entrepreneurs.

PROTECTION OF WOMEN FROM DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ACT-2005

The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 was brought into force by the Indian government from October 26, 2006. The Act was passed by the Parliament in August 2005 and assented to by the President on 13 September 2005. As of November 2007, it has been ratified by four of twenty-eight state governments in India; namely Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and Orissa.

CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISION FOR WOMEN
Article 14: Equality before law
Article 15: Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth
Article 16: Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment
Article 21: Protection of life and personal liberty
Article 23: Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour
Article 39: Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State
Article 42: Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief
Article 45: Provision for free and compulsory education for children
Article 51(e): to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.

VERMA PANEL RECOMMENDATION FOR PREVENTION OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT OF WOMEN
Justice Verma Committee was constituted to recommend amendments to the Criminal Law so as to provide for quicker trial and enhanced punishment for criminals accused of committing sexual assault against women. The Committee submitted its report on January 23, 2013.














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