Friday, 6 September 2013

SNAP -IIFT -CMAT specific G.K. content

This page covering main topics of static g.k. usually appear in SNAP ,IIFT, CMAT exam 
Also helpful to bank exam aspirants:
(Also see: list of recommended novels to read),(Maths shortcut pdf),(English grammar book)read about basics of g.k.

Related page: List of award winners 2013

1.Years Known as & Rank of India in 2013:
  2001 - Year of Women Empowerment(Govt of India)
  2002 -International Mountain Year
 2003 -International Fresh Water year
 2004 -International Year of Rice
 2005 -International yeat of Microcredit International Year of Physics
2006 -International year of Desert and Desertification
2007 -Internation polar YeatYear of Dolphin
2008 -Year of Good Governance(for SAARC Countries)
2009 -International Year of Astronomy(UN)Internation Year of natural Fibres(FAO)
2010 - International Year of BiodiversityInternational Year of Youth
2011International Year of ForestInternational Year of Chemistry
2012 – International Year of Cooperatives
India ranking in different Indexes for 2013:
a) Global Hunger Index- 66. 
b) Global Peace Index – 141 
c) Human Development Report – 136 
d) Global Corruption Index – 94 
e) Global Competitiveness Index-60 for 2013 (Switzerland top in this report)
f) Gender Inequality Index - 132nd (UN Human Development (Index) Report)
g) In List of High Net worth Individuals – (5th acc to the Knight Frank Wealth Report 2013)
h) India has been ranked as the 119th freest country in the world out of 177 in the 2013 index of economic freedom.


Black Revolution - Petroleum Production
Blue Revolution - Fish Production
Brown Revolution - Leather/non-conventional(India)/Cocoa production
Golden Fibre Revolution - Jute Production
Golden Revolution - Overall Horticulture development/Honey Production/Fruits and Vegetables
Green Revolution - Food grain (Cereals, Wheat &Leguminous; plant) production
Grey Revolution - Fertilizer Revolution
Pink Revolution - Onion production/Pharmaceutical (India)/Prawn production
Red Revolution - Meat & Tomato Production
Round Revolution - Potato Revolution
Silver Fiber Revolution - Cotton Revolution
Silver Revolution - Egg/Poultry Production
White Revolution - Milk/Dairy production (In India - Operation Flood)
Yellow Revoution - Oil Seeds production
Evergreen Revolution - Overall development of Agriculture

3. Abbreviations 

1. NABARD - National Bank for Agricultural & Rural Development 
2. RTGS - Real Time Gross Settlement 
3. NEFT - National Electronic Fund Transfer
4. NAV - Net Asset Value 
5. NPA - Non Performing Asset 
6. ASBA - Account Supported by Blocked Amount 
7. BIFR - Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction
8. CAMELS - Capital Adequacy, Asset Quality, Management Earnings,Liquidity, Systems & Controls 
9. BCSBI - Banking Codes & Standard Board of India 
10. BIS – Bank for International Settlement 
11. BCBS – Basel Committee on Banking Supervision
12. BOP - Balance of Payment 
13. BOT - Balance of Trade 
14. BPLR – Benchmark Prime Lending Rate
15. CCIL – Clearing Corporation of India Ltd.
16. CIBIL - Credit Information Bureau of India Ltd.
17. CRISIL - Credit Rating Information Services of India Ltd. 
18. CBLO - Collateralised Borrowing & Lending Obligation
19. CPI - Consumer Price Index 
20. ADR – American Depository Receipts 
21. GDR – Global Depository Receipts 
22. ALM - Asset Liability Management 
23. ARC – Asset Reconstruction Companies 
24. FINO - Financial Inclusion Network Operation 
25. CTT - Commodities Transaction Tax 
26. CRM - Customer Relationship Management 
27. KYC - Know Your Customer 
28. SLR - Statutory Liquidity Ratio
29. CRR - Cash Reserve Ratio
30. MSF - Marginal Standing Facility 
31. REPO - Repurchase Option
32. NBFC - Non Banking Finance Companies 
33. OSMOS - Off-Site Monitoring & Surveillance 
34. IFSC - Indian Financial System Code
35. BSE - Bombay Stock Exchange 
36. NSE - National Stock Exchange 
37. SWIFT - Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Tele communication
38. FSLRC – Financial Sector Legislative Reforms Commission
39. LAF – Liquidity Adjustment Facility 
40. DRT – Debt Recovery Tribunals.

read about basics of g.k.

5.Important Financial terms for G.K. questions

1. What is a Repo Rate?
A: Repo rate is the rate at which our banks borrow rupees from RBI. Whenever the banks have any shortage of funds they can borrow it from RBI. A reduction in the repo rate will help banks to get money at a cheaper rate. When the repo rate increases, borrowing from RBI becomes more expensive.

2. What is Reverse Repo Rate?
A: This is exact opposite of Repo rate. Reverse Repo rate is the rate at which Reserve Bank of India (RBI) borrows money from banks. RBI uses this tool when it feels there is too much money floating in the banking system. Banks are always happy to lend money to RBI since their money is in safe hands with a good interest. An increase in Reverse repo rate can cause the banks to transfer more funds to RBI due to this attractive interest rates.

3. What is CRR Rate? 
A: Cash reserve Ratio (CRR) is the amount of funds that the banks have to keep with RBI. If RBI decides to increase the percent of this, the available amount with the banks comes down. RBI is using this method (increase of CRR rate), to drain out the excessive money from the banks.

4. What is SLR Rate? 
A: SLR (Statutory Liquidity Ratio) is the amount a commercial bank needs to maintain in the form of cash, or gold or govt. approved securities (Bonds) before providing credit to its customers. SLR rate is determined and maintained by the RBI (Reserve Bank of India) in order to control the expansion of bank credit. SLR is determined as the percentage of total demand and percentage of time liabilities. Time Liabilities are the liabilities a commercial bank liable to pay to the customers on their anytime demand. SLR is used to control inflation and propel growth. Through SLR rate tuning the money supply in the system can be controlled efficiently.

5. What is Bank Rate?
A: Bank rate, also referred to as the discount rate, is the rate of interest which a central bank charges on the loans and advances that it extends to commercial banks and other financial intermediaries. Changes in the bank rate are often used by central banks to control the money supply.

6. What is Inflation?
A: Inflation is as an increase in the price of bunch of Goods and services that projects the Indian economy. An increase in inflation figures occurs when there is an increase in the average level of prices in Goods and services. Inflation happens when there are fewer Goods and more buyers; this will result in increase in the price of Goods, since there is more demand and less supply of the goods. 

7. What is Deflation?
A: Deflation is the continuous decrease in prices of goods and services. Deflation occurs when the inflation rate becomes negative (below zero) and stays there for a longer period. 

8. What is PLR?
A: The Prime Interest Rate is the interest rate charged by banks to their most creditworthy customers (usually the most prominent and stable business customers). The rate is almost always the same amongst major banks. Adjustments to the prime rate are made by banks at the same time; although, the prime rate does not adjust on any regular basis. The Prime Rate is usually adjusted at the same time and in correlation to the adjustments of the Fed Funds Rate. The rates reported below are based upon the prime rates on the first day of each respective month. Some banks use the name "Reference Rate" or "Base Lending Rate" to refer to their Prime Lending Rate. 

9. What is Deposit Rate? 
A: Interest Rates paid by a depository institution on the cash on deposit. 

10. What is FII?
A: FII (Foreign Institutional Investor) used to denote an investor, mostly in the form of an institution. An institution established outside India, which proposes to invest in Indian market, in other words buying Indian stocks. FII's generally buy in large volumes which has an impact on the stock markets. Institutional Investors includes pension funds, mutual funds, Insurance Companies, Banks, etc. 

11. What is FDI?
A: FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) occurs with the purchase of the physical assets or a significant amount of ownership (stock) of a company in another country in order to gain a measure of management control (Or) A foreign company having a stake in a Indian Company. 

12. What is IPO? 
A: IPO is Initial Public Offering. This is the first offering of shares to the general public from a company wishes to list on the stock exchanges. 

13. What is Disinvestment? 
A: The Selling of the government stake in public sector undertakings.

14. What is Fiscal Deficit?
A: It is the difference between the government's total receipts (excluding borrowings) and total expenditure . 

15. What is GDP? 
A: The Gross Domestic Product or GDP is a measure of all of the services and goods produced in a country over a specific period; classically a year.

16. What is GNP? 
A: Gross National Product is measured as GDP plus income of residents from investments made abroad minus income earned by foreigners in domestic market. 

17. What is National Income? 
A: National Income is the money value of all goods and services produced in a country during the year. 

18. What is Per Capita Income? 

A: The national income of a country, or region, divided by its population. Per capita income is often used to measure a country's standard of living.
read about basics of g.k.
6.Committee in news
 Committee Set Up On Uttarakhand Floods: The committee will be headed by AK Ganju (Chairman, Ganga Flood Control Commission, Patna)

2. JS Mathur committee : to revise Newspaper Advertisement Rates.

3. K. Ratna Prabha : Committee on indecent depiction of women in media 

4. Mukul Mudgal Committee: looking into US giant Walmart's lobbying activities to enter India

5. Mukul Mudgal Committee: to look at process of film clearance

6. MBN Rao Committee: to prepare the blueprint of India's first women's bank 
                            read about basics of g.k.
7. SK Srivastava Committee: to formulate a policy on public-private partnership model to raise coal output 

8. K M Chandrasekhar Committee – for rationalization of foreign investmentnorms 

9. Arvind Mayaram Committee –for giving clear definitions to Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Foreign Institutional Investment (FII)

10. Janakiraman Committee - To investigate the security transactions of the bank

11. MS Ahluwalia committee - to evaluate aspects related to set up of Nalanda University

12. Sitakant Mahapatra committee - for inclusion of Bhojpuri language in eighth schedule of constitution

13. N R Narayana Murthy committee - for evaluation of corporate sector participation in Higher Education.

14. C Rangarajan committee - for poverty scale estimates in the country

15. MB Shah committee - for inspection of illegal mining activities

16. N Rangachary committee - to examine taxation policies for I.T. sector

17. Parthasarathi Shome committee - implementation of GAAR (General Anti Avoidance Rule).

18. Deepak Parekh committee – for Financing Infrastructure sector

19. Naresh Chandra committee - 14 member task force on security issues

20. Bhandari Committee - Reconstruction of RRBs 21. RS Gujral Committee - suggest measures to boost MSME exports.
read about basics of g.k.

7. India's only
India's Only coal museum------- Margherita,Assam
• India's Only glass mosque------- Shillong,Meghalaya
• India's Only active volcano------- BarrenIsland, Andaman and Nicobar Island
• India's Only Floating National Park-------Keibul Lamjao National Park, Manipur
• India's Only Floating Lake------- Loktak Lake,Manipur
• India's Only Symphony Orchestra------ -Symphony Orchestra of India, Mumbai
• India's Only Female Wildlife Photographer------- Vasudha Chakravathi
• India's Only two F1 Driver------- NarainKarthikeyan and Karun Chandhok
• India's Only Aircraft carries------- INS Viraat
• India's Only overseas Military Base-------Farkhor Air Base, Tajikistan
• India's Only licenced production and supplyUnit for National Flag------- Karnataka KhadiGramodyoga Samyukta Sangha
• India's Only Satellite Launch Center-------Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh
• India's Only River Island------- Majuli, Assam
• India's Only Stadium with StudentGallery------- Green Park Stadium, Kanpur, UP
• India's Only Handwritten Newspaper------ -The Musalman
• India's Only district borders with fourStates------- Sonbhadra District, UP
• India's only tobacco free village-------Shankarpura, Haryana
• India's Only Cattle Fair------- Sonepur Mela,Bihar
8.India's ministers (sept 2013)
Indian Ministers
Pres. Pranab MUKHERJEE
Vice Pres. Mohammad Hamid ANSARI
Prime Min. Manmohan SINGH
National Security Adviser Shivshankar MENON
Dep. Chmn., Planning Commission Montek Singh AHLUWALIA
Min. of Agriculture Sharad PAWAR
Min. of Chemicals & Fertilizers
Min. of Civil Aviation Ajit SINGH
Min. of Coal Shriprakash JAISWAL
Min. of Commerce & Industry Anand SHARMA
Min. of Communications & Information Technology Kapil SIBAL
Min. of Culture Chandresh Kumari KATOCH
Min. of Defense A. K. ANTONY
Min. of Earth Sciences Jaipal Sudini REDDY
Min. of External Affairs Salman KHURSHID
Min. of Finance Palaniappan CHIDAMBARAM
Min. of Food Processing Industries Sharad PAWAR
Min. of Health & Family Welfare Ghulam Nabi AZAD
Min. of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises Praful PATEL
Min. of Home Affairs Sushil Kumar SHINDE
Min. of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation Girija VYAS
Min. of Human Resource Development Mallipudi Mangapati Pallam RAJU
Min. of Labor & Employment Sis Ram OLA
Min. of Law & Justice Kapil SINGH
Min. of Mines Dinsha J. PATEL
Min. of Minority Affairs K. Rahman KHAN
Min. of New & Renewable Energy Farooq ABDULLAH
Min. of Overseas Indian Affairs Vayalar RAVI
Min. of Panchayati Raj V. Kishore Chandra DEO
Min. of Parliamentary Affairs Kamal NATH
Min. of Personnel, Public Grievances, & Pensions Manmohan SINGH
Min. of Petroleum & Natural Gas M. Veerappa MOILY
Min. of Planning Manmohan SINGH
Min. of Railways Mallikarjun KHARGE
Min. of Road Transport & Highways Oscar FERNANDES
Min. of Rural Development Jairam RAMESH
Min. of Science & Technology Jaipal Sudini REDDY
Min. of Shipping Govind Karuppiah VASAN
Min. of Social Justice & Empowerment Kumari SELJA
Min. of Steel Beni Prasad VERMA
Min. of Textiles K. Sambasiva RAO
Min. of Tribal Affairs V. Kishore Chandra DEO
Min. of Urban Development Kamal NATH
Min. of Water Resources Harish RAWAT

9 First in Indian Politics & samadhi  of famous leaders 

1. First President of India - Dr. Rajendra Prasad.
2. First Woman President of India - Mrs. Pratibha Patil
3. First Vice President ofIndia - Dr. S. Radhakrishnan.
4. First Muslim President ofIndia - Dr. Zakir Hussain.
5. First Sikh President of India - Giani Jail Singh.
6. First Prime Minister of India - Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru
7. First Woman Prime Minister ofIndia - Mrs. Indira Gandhi.
8. First Speaker of the Lok Sabha - G.V. Mavlankar.
9. First Chief Justice ofIndia Justice - H.L. Kania
10. First Chairman of the Rajaya Sabha - Dr. S. Radhakrishnan.
11. First Woman Governor of a State - Mrs. Sarojini Naidu.
12 First Woman Chief Minister - Mrs. Sucheta Kripalani.
13. First Woman Central Minister -Rajkumari Amrit Kaur.
14. First Woman Speaker of Lok Sabha - Mrs. Shanno Devi.
15. First Woman IAS Officer - Anna George.
16. First Woman IPS Officer - Kiran Bedi.
17. First Woman Advocate - Carnelia Sorabji.
18. First Woman Judge - Anna Chandi.
19. First Woman Judge of High Court - Anna Chandi.
20. First Woman Judge of Supreme Court - M. Fathima Beevi.
21. First Woman Chief Justice of High Court - Justice Leela Seth.
22. First Chairman of Planning Commission - Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru.
23. First Chairman of Finance Commission - K.C. Niyogi.
24. First Acting Prime Minister of India - Guljari Lal Nanda.
25. First Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha - M. Ananthasayanam Ayyangar.
26. First recognised leader of opposition in Lok Sabha - Y.V. Chavan.
27. First recognised leader of opposition in Rajya Sabha - Lokpati Tripathi.
28. First Lok Sabha Election - 1952
29. First Chief Election Commissioner of India - Sukumar Sen.
30. First Woman Chief Election Commissioner of India - Smt. V.S. Rama Dev


10. New Appointments:
1. Justice P Sathasivam - next (40th) Chief Justice of India (CJI) (by suceeding Altamas Kabir).
2. K N Shanth Kumar - PTI Chairman (succeeded R Lakshmipathy)
3. K R Kamath Re-Elected - Chairman of Indian Banks' Association (IBA).
4. Rami Hamdallah - New Prime Minister of Palestine.
5. Sudha Sharma - New CBDT chief.
6. Thomas Mathew - New Chairman Of LIC succeeded D K Mehrotra, retired on 31 May.
7. Mahendra Mohan Gupta -Vice Chairman of PTI.
8. S Gopalakrishnan - new President of CII.
9. M F Farooqui - new Telecom Secretary
10. Deepak Sandhu - first woman Chief Information Commissioner (replaced Satyananda Mishra).
11. Rahul Dravid - Brand ambassador for Tobacco control campaign.
12. Rakesh Sood - Prime Minister's Special Envoy for Disarmament and Non-Proliferation.
13. Anil Goswami - New Union Home Secretary (by replacing R.K Singh).
14. Shashi Kant Sharma - New CAG (Comptroller and Auditor General) of India (by succeeding Vinod Rai)
15. Radha Krishna Mathur - Indian Defence Secretary (succeeded Shashikant Sharma).
16. V Hariharan - Secretary of the All India chess federation.
17. Mittu Chandilya - chief executive of AirAsia India.
18. Lt. Gen. Nirbhay Sharma - new Governor of Arunanchal Pradesh.
19. Siddaramaiah - C.M. of Karnataka.
20. Aruna Bahuguna - First Women Special DG of CRPF.
21. Nirbhay Sharma - Governor of Arunachal Pradesh.
22. Krishna Kumar Natrajan (CEO and Director of Mindtree) - New Chief of NASSCOM (replaced N Chandrasekaran).
23. PJ Kurien - Chairman of Asian forum of Parliamentarians (replaced Yasuo Fukuda, former P M of Japan)
24. Vinod Rai - Re-Elected As Chairman of UN Panel of External Auditors.
25. Sidharth Birla (Chairman of Xpro India Ltd and Digjam Ltd) - Senior Vice-President of FICCI.
26. Justice D.K. Jain - new Chairman of Law Commission.
27. Shyamala Gopinath - New Clearing Corporation of India Ltd(CCIL) Chairperson.
28. Jawahar Sircar - New CEO of Prasar Bharti.
29. Rajiv Takru - Secretary of Financial Services in the Finance Ministry replacing Dinesh Kumar.
30. P.R. Vasudeva Rao - Director of the IGCAR (Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research) replacing S.C Chetal.
31. Asoke Kumar Mukerji - Next Permanent Representative of India to the UN.
32. Aishwarya Rai Bachchan as International GoodwillAmbassador – UNAIDS (UN Programme on HIV/AIDS).
33. Mary Kom - Brand Ambassador of Super Fight League (SPL) .
34. Rajan Bharti Mittal - president of International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) India.
35. Gregg Clark - Coach of the Junior Hockey Men's National Team
36. K K Paul - Meghalaya governor replacing Ranjit Shekhar Mooshahary.
37. Sunil Soni - Director General of Bureau of Indian Standards
38. Shriniwas Patil - new governor of Sikkim.
39. R. Chandrasekhar (the former Secretary Department of Telecommunications (DoT)) - Nasscom President, succeeding current Nasscom President Som Mittal, whose tenure expires in January 2014
40. Hazem El-Beblawi - new Prime Minister of Egypt by the Interim President Adly Mansour.
41. Francisco Garcia (Spain) - as head coach of the Indian seniorwomen's basketball team.
42. Hemant Soren (Jharkhand Mukti Morcha leader) - Chief Minister of Jharkhand.
43. Abdul Rahim Rather (Jammu & Kashmir Finance Minister) - new Chairman of the Empowered Committee of State Finance Ministers on GST.
44. Arvind Sharma (Chairman and CEO of Leo Burnett, India) - President of Advertising Agencies Association of India (AAAI)
45. Professor Mahendra P. Lama - new pro-vice-chancellor of the Indira Gandhi National Open University(IGNOU).

46. Sujatha Singh - India's new foreign secretary. Sujatha Singh is the third woman to head the Foreign services after Chokila Iyer and Nirupama Rao.

11.Important summit-2013

BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) Summitsimages (1)
• 4th BRICS Summit 2012 – New Delhi, India
• 5th BRICS Summit 2013 – Durban, South Africa
G-8 Annual Summits Group of Eight (G8) Countries – France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United KingdomUnited States of America, Canada, Russia.
• 37th G8 Meeting 2011 – Deauville, France
• 38th G8 Meeting 2012 – David camp, USA
• 39th G8 Summit 2013 – County Fermanagh, UK
• 40th G8 Summit 2014 – Russia
G-20 Summits
• 7th G 20 Meeting 2012 – Los Cabos, Mexico
• 8th G 20 Meeting 2013 – Saint Petersburg, Russia
• 9th G 20 Meeting 2014 – Brisbane, Australia
SAARC Summits SAARC – South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
• 17th SAARC Summit 2011– Addu, Maldives
• 18th SAARC Summit 2013 – Kathmandu,Nepal
ASEAN Summits ASEAN – Association of South East Asian Nation
• 19th ASEAN Summit 2011 (November) – Bali, Indonesia
• 20th ASEAN Summit 2012 (April) – Phnom penh, Cambodia
• 21th ASEAN Summit 2012 (November)– Phnom penh, Cambodia
ASEAN-India Summit
• 9th ASEAN-India Summit 2011 – Bali, Indonesia
• 10th ASEAN-India Summit 2012 – Phnom penh, Cambodia
East Asia Summit (EAS) EAS meetings are held after annual ASEAN leaders’ meetings.
• 6th East Asia Summit 2011 – Bali, Indonesia
• 7th East Asia Summit 2012 – Phnom penh, Cambodia
IBSA Summits IBSA Dialogue Forum – India, Brazil, South Africa.
• 5th IBSA Summit 2011 – Pretoria, South Africa
• 6th IBSA Summit 2013 – India
APEC Summits APEC – Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation
• 23rd APEC summit 2011 – Honolulu, USA
• 24th APEC Summit 2012 – Vladivostok,Russia
• 25th APEC Summit 2013 – Medan/Jakarta, Indonesia
• 26th APEC Summit 2014 – China
• 27th APEC Summit 2015 – Philippines
• 28th APEC Summit 2016 – Lima, Peru
OPEC Seminars OPEC – Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
• 4th OPEC International Seminar 2009 – Vienna, Austria
• 5th OPEC International Seminar 2012 – Vienna, Austria
NAM Summits NAM – Non-aligned Movement
• 16th NAM Summit 2012 – Tehran, Iran
• 17th NAM Summit 2015 – Caracas,Venezuela
SCO Meetings SCO – Shanghai Cooperation Organization
• SCO Meeting 2011 – Astana, Kazakhstan
• SCO Meeting 2012 – Beijing, China
• SCO Meeting 2013 – Kyrgyzstan
NATO (North Atlantic treaty organization) international conference on Afghanistan will be held in Chicago (USA)
Asian Development Bank (ADB) Annual Meetings Annual meeting of the board of governors of the AsianDevelopment Bank (ADB) held every year.
• ADB Annual Meeting 2012 – Manila, Philippines
• ADB Annual Meeting 2013 – New Delhi, India
WTO Ministerial Conferences
• 8th WTO Ministerial Conferences 2011 – Geneva, Switzerland
• 9th WTO Ministerial Conferences 2013 (Expected) -Bali, Indonesia.

12 Important publications

---World economic outlook
--- Global financial stability report
World bank:
--- World development report (for WDR 2013 theme was 'JOB')
---Financial stability report
Asian development bank:
---Key indicators for Asia & Pacific
World Economic Forum:
---Global Competitiveness Report
---Financial Development Report
---World Investment Report

13 important government schemes:

 It was implemented and extended in three phases i.e., from (2005 - 2009), (2009 - 2012), (2012- 2014) 
 It is centrally sponsored scheme for the rural development of India started in September 2005.  There are 6 objectives in this scheme Objectives:
a) To provide all weather road connectivity to the village which have more than 1000 population in plain areas and 500 population in hilly areas.
b) To bring 10 million hectares of land under irrigation facility and to make 1.4 million hectares of additional land for arable land (for the use of agriculture). 
c) To provide clean drinking water to all villages by the end of 2012 under Rajiv Gandhi payjal yojana. 
d) To electrify 1, 76,000 villages by the end of 2012 under Rajiv Gandhi Vidyutikaran yojna. 
e) To construct Pakka houses for BPL house- holds under Indira Awas Yojana (Now from April 1st 2013 cash assistance Rs. 70000 for plain areas and Rs. 75000 for hilly areas) previously it was Rs. 40000 for plain areas and Rs. 45000 for hilly areas.
f) To provide telephone connectivity to all villages and all BPL holders by 2012. g) Note: All these objectives are extended till 2014.

2. JNNURM: Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission
 It was implemented and extended in two phases i.e., (2005 - 2012), (2012 - 2014) 
 Started in the year 2005 to make million plus cities squatter (Slum area) free.
 There are 2 components 
a) To construct pakka houses for urban poor dwelling in squatter under Rajiv Awas yojana
b) To make transportation system faster and greener

3. NRHM: National Rural Health Mission
 It was started on 12th April 2005 to enhance the health facilities in rural areas.
 The appointment of ASHA workers (Accredited social health activist) in Anganwadi Kendra to provide basic information on health and hygiene conditions as well as to guide people regarding conservation of water. 

4. MGNREGA: Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
 It was on started on 2nd Feb 2006 to provide minimum 150 days from 1st April 2013 (previously it was 100 days) of employment to rural house hold.
 The old name of this scheme is NREGA and it was changed to MGNREGA on 2nd Oct 2009. 
 The wages under the scheme is fixed on the basis of CPI-AL (Consumer Price Index for Agricultural Labourers) which is calculated by the state government on the basis of their Per capita Income.

5. UIDAI: Unique Identification Authority of India. 
 It was started in the year 2010 to provide multipurpose national identity card (MNIC) to every resident .
 Its name has been changed to Aadhar. 
 Its model state was Karnataka (started) It consists of 12 digit number
 Chairman: Nandan Nilekani 

6. IGNOAPS: Indira Gandhi National Old age Pension Scheme 
 This Scheme is for the people who aged above 60 years.
 The amount of Rs. 400 per month (Central govt + State govt = Rs. 200 + Rs. 200) will be provided by both Central government and State government who aged between 60 – 80 years. 
 Rs. 500 per month (Central govt + State govt = Rs. 250 + Rs. 250) for the people who aged more than 80 year

14 Different Technologies & Their Founders
1. Google: Larry Page & Sergey Brin
2. Facebook: Mark Zuckerberg
3. Yahoo: David Filo & Jerry Yang
4. Twitter: Founder(s)Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass,Evan Williams, Biz Stone
5. Internet: Tim Berners Lee
6. Linkdin: Reid Hoffman, Allen Blue & Koonstantin Guericke
7. Email: Shiva Ayyadurai
8. Gtalk: Richard Wah kan
9. Whats up: Laurel Kirtz
10. Hotmail: Sabeer Bhatia
11. Orkut: Buyukkokten
12. Wikipedia: Jimmy Wales
13. You tube: Steve Chen, Chad Hurley & Jawed Karim
14. Rediffmail: Ajit Balakrishnan
15. Nimbuzz: Martin Smink & Evert Jaap Lugt
16. Myspace: Chris Dewolfe & Tom Anderson
17. Ibibo: Ashish Kashyap
18. OLX: Alec Oxenford & Fabrice Grinda
19. Skype: Niklas Zennstrom,Janus Friis & Reid Hoffman
20. Opera: Jon Stephenson von Tetzchner & Geir lvarsoy
21. Mozilla Firefox: Dave Hyatt & Blake Ross
22. Blogger: Evan Willams

15. River projects in india :

1. Bhakra Nangal Project —On Sutlej in Punjab. Highest in India.Ht. 226m. Reservoir is called Gobind Sagar Lake.

2. Mandi Project— On Beas in HP

3. Chambal Valley Project—- On Chambal in MP & Rajasthan, 3 dams are there:- Gandhi Sagar Dam, Rana Pratap Sagar Dam and Jawahar Sagar Dam

4. Damodar Valley Project— On Damodar in Bihar(Now Jharkhand) & West Bengal, Based on Tennessee Valley Project USA

5. Hirakud Project— On Mahanadi in Orrisa, World's Longest Dam: 4801m

6. Rihand Project— On Son in Mirzapur, Reservoir is called Gobind Vallabh Pant reservoir.

7. Kosi Project— On Kosi in N.Bihar

8. Mayurkashi Project— On Mayurkashi in West Bengal

9. Kakrapara Project— On Tapi in Gujarat

10. Nizamsagar Project— On Manjra in Andhra Pradesh

11. Nagarjuna Sagar Project— On Krishna in Andhra Pradesh

12. Tugabhadra Project— On Tugabhadra in Andhra Pradesh & Karnataka

13. Shivasamudram Project— On Cauvery in Karnataka. It is the older river valley project in India.

14. Tata Hydel Scheme—- On Bhima in Maharashtra

15. Sharavathi Hydel Project— On Jog Falls in Karnataka

16. Kundah & Periyar Project—- In Tamil Nadu

17. Farakka Project — On Ganga in WB. Apart from power and irrigation it helps to remove silt for easy navigation.

18. Ukai Project—- On Tapti in Gujarat

19. Mahi Project—- On Mahi in Gujarat

20. Salal Project—-- On Chenab in J&K

21. Matatila Multipurpose Project— On Betwa in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh

22. Thein Project—- On Ravi, Punjab.

23. Pong Dam— On Beas, Punjab

24. Tehri Dam — On Bhgirathi, Uttarakhand

25. Sardar Sarovar Project—- On Narmada, Gujarat/MP

Person who recognized as Father/Mother of a subject

• Father of Microscopy - Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek
• Father of Western Medicine - Hippocrates
• Father of Internet - Vint Cerf
• Father of the American Constitution - James Madison
• Father of the Indian Constitution - Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
• Father of Humanism - Francesco Petrarca
• Father of Geometry - Euclid of Alexandria
• Father of New France - Samuel de Champlain
• Father of Genetics - Gregor Mendel
• Father of the Green Revolution - Norman Ernest Borlaug
• Father of the Green Revolution in India - M.S Swaminathan
• Father of Scientific Management -Frederick Winslow Taylor
• Father of Biology - Aristotle
• Father of Evolution - Charles Darwin
• Father of Microbiology - Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
• Father of Nuclear Chemistry - Otto Hahn
• Father of Periodic Table - Dmitri Mendeleev
• Father of modern Medicine - Hippocrates
• Father of Modern Physics - Galileo Galilei
• Father of Modern Astronomy - Nicolaus Copernicus
• Father of Nuclear Physics - Ernest Rutherford
• Father of Nuclear Science - Marie Curie and Pierre Curie
• Father of Computer Science -George Boole and Alan Turing
• Father of American Football - Walter Camp
• Father of Walter Camp - Geoffrey Chaucer
• Father of modern Olympic - Pierre De Coubertin
• Father of of Numbers - Pythagoras
• Father of Botany - Theophrastus
• Father of Electricity - Benjamin Franklin
• Father of Electonics - Michael Faraday
• Father of Television - Vladimir K. Zworykin
• Father of Telephone - Alexander Graham Bell
• Father of Mobile Phone - Martin Cooper
• Father of Laptop - Bill Moggridge
• Father of Psychology - Sigmund Freud
• Father of Surgery - Sushruta
• Father of Plastic Surgery - Sir Harold Gillies
• Father of Ayurveda - Dhanwantari: