Wednesday, 31 July 2013

General knowledge

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1. History of Taxation in india:
2.List of popular awards and winners
3.books and authors
6. Current  positions of post and people: 
7 Countries and Parliaments 

(Also see list of good novels to read:
History in taxation in india:
In India, the tradition of taxation has been in force from ancient times. It finds its references in many ancient books like 'Manu Smriti' and 'Arthasastra'. There was a perfect admixture of direct taxes with indirect taxes and they were varied in nature. India's history of taxation suggests existence of a large and composite taxable population. With the advent of the moguls in India the country witnessed a sea of change in the taxation system of India. Although, they also practiced the same norm of taxation but it was more homogeneous in structure and collection. The Islamic rulers imposed jizya. It was later on abolished by Akbar. However, Aurangzeb, the last prominent Mughal Emperor,
levied jizya on his mostly Hindu subjects in 1679. Reasons for this are cited to be financial
stringency and personal inclination on the part of the emperor, and a petition by the ulema. His
subjects were taxed in accordance with the property they owned. Government servants were exempt, as were the blind, the paralyzed, and the indigent. Its introduction encountered much opposition,
which was, however, abolished. Jizya is a per capita tax levied on a section of an Islamic state's
non-Muslim citizens, who meet certain criteria. From the point of view of the Muslim rulers, jizya
was a material proof of the non-Muslims' acceptance of subjection to the state and its laws, "just as for the inhabitants it was a concrete continuation of the taxes paid to earlier regimes." In return, non-Muslim citizens were permitted to practice their faith, to enjoy a measure of communal
autonomy, to be entitled to Muslim state's protection from outside aggression, to be exempted from military service and the Zakat as obligatory upon Muslim citizens. The period of British rule in India witnessed some remarkable change in the whole taxation system of India. Although, it was highly in favor of the British government and its exchequer but it incorporated modern and scientific method of taxation tools and systems. In 1922, the country witnessed a paradigm shift in the overall Indian
taxation system. Setting up of administrative system and taxation system was first done by the

1.To know about Tax in India: Taxation in india(download in pdf format)

2.List of popular awards and winners:
download below list in excel format:
Award Name Year Winner Field
Abel Prize 2011 John Milnor Mathematics
Academy of Interactive Arts & Sciences Interactive achievment awards 2010 Mass Effect 2 Best Video Game overall
Ashok Chakra  2011 Major. Laishram Jyotin Singh Armed Forces
Cannes Lions  2011 JWT Shanghai Advertising (Print) Grand Prix
Cannes Lions  2011 Weiden + Kennedy Amsterdam Advertising (film) Grand Prix
Dada Saheb Phalke Award 2010 K. Balachander Cinema
Dronacharya Award 2011 Rajinder Singh Hockey
Dronacharya Award 2011 Devender Kumar Rathore Gymnastics
Dronacharya Award 2011 Ramphal Athletics
Dronacharya Award 2011 Kuntal Roy Athletics
Dronacharya Award 2011 Inukurthi Venkateshwara Rao Boxing
Golden Lion (Venice Film Festival) 2011 Faust Best Film
Grammy Award 2011 Muse Best Rock Album
Grammy Award 2011 Arcade Fire Best Album
Jnanpith Award 2010 Chandrashekhara Kambara Literature
Mark Twain Prize for American Humor 2011 Will Ferrell Humour
Max Planck Medal 2011  Giorgio Parisi Physics
Miss India 2011 Kanishtha Dhankhar Beauty Contest
Miss Universe 2011 Leila Lopes(Angola) Beauty Contest
Miss World 2011 Ivian Sarcos (Venezuela) Beauty Contest
National Film Award 2011 Adaminte Makan Abu Best Feature film
National Film Award 2011 Dhanush, Salim Kumar Best Actor
National Film Award 2011 Rekha Bhardwaj Best Playback singer (Female)
National Film Award 2011 Suresh Wadkar Best Playback singer (male)
Padma Vibhushan 2011 Azim Premji Trade and Industry
Primetime Emmy Award 2011 Modern Family Best Comedy TV series
Primetime Emmy Award 2011 Mad Men Best Drama TV series
Primetime Emmy Award 2011 The Daily Show Best Variety TV series
Pulitzer Prize 2011 Los Angeles Times Public Service
Pulitzer Prize 2011 Paige St. John  Investigative Reporting
Pulitzer Prize 2011 Clifford J. Levy and Ellen Barry International reporting
Pulitzer Prize 2011 Joseph Rago Editorial Writing
Rajeev Gandhi Khel Ratna Awards 2010-11 Gagan Narang Shooting
Stockholm Prize in Criminology 2011 John Laub (National Institute of Justice)
Robert Sampson (Harvard University)
Templeton Prize 2011 Martin John Rees Spiritual Work
Time Man of the year 2010 Mark Zukerberg Personal achievment
Turing Award 2011 Leslie. G Valiant Computing
Webby Award 2011 Best website home page
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3.books and authors
Books & Authors
Question Answer
A Tale of Two Cities Charles Dickens
The Lord of the Rings J. R. R. Tolkien
The Da Vinci Code Dan Brown
Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows J. K. Rowling
Angels and Demons Dan Brown
In His Steps: What Would Jesus Do? Charles M. Sheldon
To Kill a Mockingbird Harper Lee
Gone with the Wind Margaret Mitchell
Who Moved My Cheese? Spencer Johnson
The Godfather Mario Puzo
Love Story Erich Segal
The Secret Rhonda Byrne
The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People Stephen R. Covey
How to Win Friends and Influence People Dale Carnegie
Tuesdays with Morrie Mitch Albom
The Prophet Khalil Gibran
The Exorcist William Peter Blatty
A Brief History of Time Stephen Hawking
The Kite Runner Khaled Hosseini
Robinson Crusoe Daniel Defoe
Gulliver's Travels  Jonathan Swift 
David Copperfield  Charles Dickens
Wuthering Heights  Emily Bronte 
Jane Eyre  Charlotte Bronte 
Vanity Fair  William Makepeace Thackeray 
Moby-Dick  Herman Melville
Madame Bovary  Gustave Flaubert 
Huckleberry Finn  Mark Twain 
Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde  Robert Louis Stevenson
A Passage to India  E. M. Forster
One Hundred Years of Solitude  Gabriel Garcia Marquez 
Don Quixote  Miguel De Cervantes
Mein Kampf Adolf Hitler
Far From the Madding Crowd Thomas Hardy
The Fountainhead Ayn Rand

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  1. Raghunath Mohapatra, Art, Orissa
  2. S Haider Raza, Art, Delhi
  3. Prof Yash Pal, Science and Engineering, Uttar Pradesh
  4. Prof Roddam Narasimha, Science and Engineering, Karnataka 


  1. Dr Ramanaidu Daggubati, Art, Andhra Pradesh
  2. Sreeramamurthy Janaki, Art, Tamil Nadu
  3. Dr (Smt) Kanak Rele, Art, Maharashtra
  4. Sharmila Tagore, Art, Delhi
  5. Dr (Smt) Saroja Vaidyanathan, Art, Delhi
  6. Abdul Rashid Khan, Art, West Bengal
  7. Late Rajesh Khanna, Art, Maharashtra
  8. Late Jaspal Singh Bhatti, Art, Punjab
  9. Shivajirao Girdhar Patil, Public Affairs, Maharashtra 
  10. Dr Apathukatha Sivathanu Pillai, Science, Engineering Delhi 
  11. Dr Vijay Kumar Saraswat, Science and Engineering, Delhi
  12. Dr Ashoke Sen Science and Engineering Uttar Pradesh
  13. B N Suresh, Science and Engineering, Karnataka
  14. Prof Satya N Atluri, Science and Engineering, USA
  15. Prof Jogesh Chandra Pati, Science and Engineering, USA
  16. Ramamurthy Thyagarajan, Trade and Industry, Tamil Nadu
  17. Adi Burjor Godrej, Trade and Industry, Maharashtra
  18. Dr Nandkishore Shamrao Laud, Medicine, Maharashtra 
  19. Mangesh Padgaonkar, Literature and Education, Maharashtra
  20. Prof Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Literature & Education USA
  21. Hemendra Singh Panwar, Civil Service, Madhya Pradesh
  22. Maharaj Kishan Bhan, Civil Service, Delhi
  23. Rahul Dravid, Sports, Karnataka
  24. H Mangte Chungneijang Mary Kom, Sports, Manipur

6 PADMA SHRI (2013)

  1. Gajam Anjaiah, Art, Andhra Pradesh
  2. Swami G C D Bharti alias Bharati Bandhu, Art, Chhattisgarh
  3. B Jayashree, Art, Karnataka
  4. Sridevi Kapoor, Art, Maharashtra
  5. Kailash Chandra Meher, Art, Orissa
  6. Brahmdeo Ram Pandit, Art, Maharashtra
  7. Vishwanath D Patekar alias Nana Patekar, Art, Maharashtra
  8. R Nageswara Rao alias Surabhi Babji, Art, Andhra Pradesh
  9. Lakshmi Narayana Sathiraju, Art, Tamil Nadu
  10. Jaymala Shiledar, Art, Maharashtra
  11. Suresh Dattatray Talwalkar, Art, Maharashtra
  12. P Madhavan Nair alias Madhu, Art, Kerala
  13. Apurba Kishore Bir, Art, Maharashtra
  14. Ghanakanta Bora Borbayan, Art, Assam
  15. Hilda Mit Lepcha, Art, Sikkim
  16. Sudha Malhotra, Art, Maharashtra 
  17. Ghulam Mohammad Saznawaz, Art, Jammu and Kashmir
  18. Ramesh Gopaldas Sippy, Art, Maharashtra
  19. Mahrukh Tarapor, Art, Maharashtra
  20. Balwant Thakur, Art, Jammu and Kashmir
  21. Puran Das Baul, Art, West Bengal
  22. Rajendra Tikku, Art, Jammu and Kashmir
  23. Pablo Bartholomew, Art, Delhi
  24. Shri S Shakir Ali, Art, Rajasthan
  25. S K M Maeilanandhan, Social Work, Tamil Nadu
  26. Nileema Mishra, Social Work, Maharashtra
  27. Reema Nanavati, Social Work, Gujarat
  28. Jharna Dhara Chowdhury, Social Work, Bangladesh
  29. Late Dr Ram Krishan, Social Work, Uttar Pradesh
  30. Late Manju Bharat Ram, Social Work, Delhi
  31. Prof Mustansir Barma, Science and Engineering, Maharashtra
  32. Avinash Chander, Science and Engineering, Delhi
  33. Sanjay Govind Dhande, Science and Engineering, Uttar Pradesh
  34. Prof (Dr) Sankar Kumar Pal, Science, Engineering, West Bengal
  35. Deepak B Phatak, Science and Engineering, Maharashtra
  36. Dr Mudundi Ramakrishna Raju, Science and Engg, Andhra Pradesh
  37. Prof Ajay K Sood, Science and Engineering, Karnataka
  38. Prof Krishnaswamy Vijayraghavan, Science & Engg, Karnataka
  39. Dr Manindra Agrawal, Science and Engineering, Uttar Pradesh
  40. Dr Jayaraman Gowrishankar, Science & Engineering, Andhra Pradesh
  41. Prof Sharad Pandurang Kale, Science & Engineering, Maharashtra
  42. Vandana Luthra, Trade and Industry, Delhi
  43. Rajshree Pathy, Trade and Industry, Tamil Nadu
  44. Hemendra Prasad Barooah, Trade and Industry, Assam 
  45. Milind Kamble, Trade and Industry, Maharashtra
  46. Kalpana Saroj, Trade and Industry, Maharashtra
  47. Dr Sudarshan K Aggarwal, Medicine, Delhi
  48. Dr C Venkata S Ram alias Chitta, Venkata Sundara Ram, Medicine, Andhra Pradesh
  49. Dr Rajendra Achyut Badwe, Medicine, Maharashtra
  50. Dr Taraprasad Das, Medicine, Orissa
  51. Prof (Dr) T V Devarajan, Medicine, Tamil Nadu
  52. Prof (Dr) Saroj Chooramani Gopal, Medicine, Uttar Pradesh
  53. Dr Pramod Kumar Julka, Medicine, Delhi
  54. Dr Gulshan Rai Khatri, Medicine, Delhi
  55. Dr Ganesh Kumar Mani, Medicine, Delhi
  56. Dr Amit Prabhakar Maydeo, Medicine, Maharashtra
  57. Dr Sundaram Natarajan, Medicine, Maharashtra
  58. Prof Krishna Chandra Chunekar, Medicine, Uttar Pradesh
  59. Dr Vishwa Kumar Gupta, Medicine, Delhi 
  60. Prof (Capt) Dr M Sharaf-eAlam, Literature & Education, Bihar
  61. Dr Radhika Herzberger, Literature & Education, Andhra Pradesh
  62. J Malsawma, Literature and Education, Mizoram
  63. Devendra Patel, Literature & Education, Gujarat
  64. Dr Rama Kant Shukla, Literature & Education, Delhi
  65. Prof Akhtarul Wasey, Literature & Education, Delhi
  66. Prof Anvita Abbi, Literature & Education, Delhi
  67. Nida Fazli, Literature & Education, Madhya Pradesh
  68. Surender Kumar Sharma, Literature & Education, Delhi
  69. Dr Jagdish Prasad Singh, Literature & Education, Bihar
  70. Late Shaukat Riaz Kapoor Alias Salik Lakhnawi, Literature & Education, WB
  71. Prof Noboru Karashima, Literature & Education, Japan
  72. Christopher Pinney, Literature & Education, UK
  73. Premlata Agrawal, Sports, Jharkhand
  74. Yogeshwar Dutt, Sports, Haryana
  75. Hosanagara Nagarajegowda Girisha, Sports, Karnataka
  76. Subedar Major Vijay Kumar, Sports, Himachal Pradesh
  77. Ngangom Dingko Singh, Sports, Maharashtra
  78. Naib Subedar Bajrang Lal Takhar, Sports, Rajasthan
  79. Ritu Kumar, Fashion Designing, Delhi
  80. Dr Ravindra Singh Bisht, Archaeology, Uttar Pradesh. 
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6. Current positions: 
Attorney General of India Goolam Essaji Vahanvati
Central Vigilance Commissioner Pradeep Kumar
Chairman, ISRO K Radhakrishnan
Chairman, LIC S K Roy
Chairman, NABARD Prakash Bakshi
Chairman, NASSCOM Krishnakumar Natarajan
Chairman, National Knowledge Commission Sam Pitroda
Chairman, Planning Commission Manmohan Singh
Chairman, Press Council of India Markandey Katju
Chairman, Press Trust of India R Lakshmipathy
Chairman, SEBI U K Sinha
Chairman, TRAI Rahul Kullar
Chairman, UIDAI Nandan Nilekani
Chief Election Commissioner V S Sampath
Chief Justice of India P. Sathasivam
Chief of the Air Staff Air Chief Marshall N A K Browne
Chief of the Army Staff General Bikram Singh
Chief of the Naval Staff Admiral D K Joshi
Comptroller and Auditor General Shashi Kant Sharma
Defence Secretary R K Mathur
Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission Montek Singh Ahluwalia
Director, BARC Sekhar Basu
Director of the Enforcement Directorate Rajan Katoch
Director, Intelligence Bureau S. A. Ibrahim
Foreign Secretary Sujatha Singh
Governor, RBI Raghuram Rajan
National Security Advisor Shivshankar Menon
President, CII S. Gopalakrishnan
President, FICCI Naina Lal Kidwai
Principal Scientific Adviser R Chidambaram
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 7. countries and parliament
Name of Parliament
People's Assembly
National Popular Assembly
National Popular Assembly
National Congress
Federal Parliament
National Assembly-Bundesversammlung
General Assembly
Jatiya Sangshad
National Assembly
National Revolutionary Assembly
National Congress
National Assembly
National Congress
Parliament (House of Commons and House of Lords)
Narodna Subranie (National Assembly)
Burma (Myanmar)
Pyithu Hluttaw
National, Assembly
Parliament (House of Commons and Senate)
Cape Verde
People's National Assembly
China, Mainland
National People Congress
China, National
Yuan (National Assembly)
National Assembly of People's Power
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